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What are the effects on urban areas of rapid urbanisation

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Introduction

What are the effects on urban areas of rapid urbanisation? How can these problems be solved? Urbanisation is the growth in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas and has rapidly taken place over the last 200 years, particularly between 1800 and 1850, where there was a population explosion. Also, more recently, between 1950 and 1990, the proportion of people in the world living in urban areas increased by 20%. Currently the rate of urbanisation is much less rapid in MEDC's than LEDC's as a large majority of the population are already living in urban areas. The two main factors affecting urbanisation are migration, and natural growth. Firstly, the main reason for migration is 'push and pull' factors, and these in this case are things that attract them to urban areas, and things that push them away from the rural areas. Secondly, natural growth affects urbanisation because, in urban areas, there are more young people on the whole, giving birth, and therefore a higher birth rate, and lower death rate, due to easy access to hospitals and medication etc. ...read more.

Middle

These favelas are often hazardous in various ways. One of which is that there is often a lack of safe drinking water, which means people are forced to drink water that could well carry disease (e.g. malaria). Most favelas do not have an electrical supply, and those that do have illegal electricity, that is pirated from another line (this can cause fire, or even death). Many favelas do not contain a toilet, and this means a built up of sewage, which can also carry disease. There is also the matter of overcrowding in favelas, which means poor living conditions, and the spread of diseases such as tuberculosis. To try to improve these conditions there were various solutions carried out. Firstly, one idea is to improve the living conditions in the favelas, by a 'self help scheme'. This means that the government supplies building materials, water, electricity, toilets etc. However this can have the knock on effect that people will be attracted to the newly developed favela, and this can increase the problems of urbanisation. In response to this people are encouraged not to move from rural areas to urban areas, so that the urban area can properly develop. ...read more.

Conclusion

Due to a rise in the proportion of people in Sao Paulo (urban area), there are subsequently more people driving a car, and also, more people using public transport. This means that there is often large traffic jams, and the average speed in the centre of Sao Paulo was once recorded at 4km/h. There is also a problem that comes with this, as due to the rise in traffic, people are waiting around a lot in their cars, giving off exhaust, meaning a lot of pollution is produced. The traffic problem was set out, by the government, to be improved by building new roads, and widening current roads to fit more cars on them. Another method was to defer people from using personal materials, by methods such as increasing petrol prices, and parking prices. The government then tried to encourage people to use public transport, by building much better transport links etc. Making a balance of these two transport methods means that there is less congestion, as it is not all channelled into one method. On the other hand there are a few good things that can come out of rapid urbanisation, such as facilities being built, schools, and transport etc. to accommodate for the rise in the proportion living in the urban areas. ...read more.

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