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Child development - physical and emotional growth.

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Introduction

Unit 4 - P1 Physical When a baby is born, it weighs an average of 3.5kg and is about 50cm long. Boys are an average of 100g heavier than girls. A baby will generally have doubled its weight within 4-6 months and have tripled it within a year of birth. During the baby's first year, the limbs grow at a very quick rate while the head grows at a slower rate. Here the baby's bones increase in density and the muscle fibres become larger. We can see that the overall growth rate at this age is very rapid. All newborns come into the world equipped with many motor skills that allow them to act on their environments. Here they acquire new behaviours through learning. The nervous system is developing rapidly at this age. By the time a child is 2 years old, their weight is usually about four times their initial birth weight and between the ages of 2-4 their growth proceeds a little bit slower than before until the next growth spurt at age 4. In the infancy and toddler age the child would do actions such as sucking, show a characteristic stepping action and grip tightly objects placed in his/her hands. Here the infant responds to loud noises by turning the head, closes hands and pulling his legs. As the child grows, s/he would also develop the posture and locomotion. ...read more.

Middle

Accomodation, which is the adjustment that takes place in ones understanding of something following new experiences. iii. Equilibration that involves a periodic reform of schemas into new structures. According to Piaget, infants, from birth up to 18 months would develop the sensorimotor stage, which is their first schema. Here the infants will start coordinating their sensory perceptions and simple motor behaviours. From 2 up to 7 years would develop the pre-operational stage where infants are developing a range of schemas. Here they can represent reality to themselves through the use of symbols, which include mental images, words and gestures. From 7 up to 11 years would develop the concrete operational stage where the children can now decentre and reason logically and from 12 years onwards would develop the formal operational stage where children are now able to reason logically and to deal with abstract concepts. (Thomson, Meggitt, 1997) Different components of intellectual ability give us a clear picture of change and stability across the adult years. Here theorists have come up with many ways to subdivide the intellectual tasks of adults. However, the most influential of these theories is that of Cattell and Horn of crystallised and fluid intelligence. Here this theory suggests that intelligence is composed of a number of different abilities that interact and work together to produce overall individual intelligence. ...read more.

Conclusion

Here adolescents pass from many changes both physical and psychological where they must make new adjustments. Here we can see that new worries set in as they are not children anymore and must start thinking about their future because of this, adolescents will pass from uncontrolled and sometimes irrational behaviours and emotions. In early adulthood, adults need to adjust to getting married, responsibility, work and being independent. Here adults would be afraid of social isolation because they could not go out with their friends because of marriage. Here another problem in that while trying to adjust, the young adults has to balance their financial issues. In cases of single parents, problems might be intensified as the single parent must cope with the child and work commitments. All this can create anxiety in the young adult. In middle adulthood, adults would have a full time job and others would do an evaluation of their life. Some of them would also be afraid that they are going to be alone because their children get married and some of them might become grandparents themselves. At the same time, they might have to start to care for their own parents who are now ageing as well. In old age, they would have more free time for their friends, families and to relax but on the other hand there is a great risk of loneliness and social isolation, which is due to illness, disability, feeling useless, low self-esteem, sadness, depression and grief. (Abela, Diacono, Ciantar, 2008) ...read more.

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