Compare two therapeutic approaches to mental disorders
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Compare two therapeutic approaches to mental disorders The essence of the medical model is the view that abnormal behaviours like mental disorders result from physical problems and should be treated medically, in other words; mental disorders resemble physical diseases, in that they are both illness of the body. As a result, the medical approach would argue that mental illness and therapeutic action should be taken from the medical perspective. Whereas the psychodynamic approach concerning mental illness put forward by Freud was based partly on his psychosexual development theory. In essence, the child passes through stages such as oral, anal etc. Major conflicts or excessive gratification at any of these stages can lead to fixation, therefore if an adult experiences great personal problems, he or she will tend to show regression (going back through the stages of the psychosexual development) to the stage at which he or she had previously been fixated. Thus because conflicts cause anxiety, and the ego defends itself against anxiety by using several defence mechanisms to prevent traumatic thoughts and feelings reaching consciousness, mental disorders can arise when an individual has unresolved conflicts and traumas from childhood.
However, they have significant disadvantages. First, as we have seen, they have several unfortunates' side effects. Second, the drugs basically reduce symptoms, and cannot be regarded as providing a cure for schizophrenia. This is very unlike the psychodynamics' approach to treating mental disorders; the psychodynamic therapy is based on psychoanalysis, and was introduced by sigmund Freud at the start of the twentieth century. Freud and other psychoanalysts used various methods to uncover repressed ideas, and to permit the client to gain insight into his or her unresolved problems unlike the medical model, which is drug-centred. As a form of therapy the approach uses hypnosis, Freud and Breuer treated a twenty one-year-old women called Anna O, who suffered from several neurotic symptoms such as nervous coughs and paralysis. Hypnosis uncovered a repressed memory of Anna O hearing the sound of dance music coming from a nearby house as she was nursing her dying father, and her guilty feeling that she would rather be dancing than looking after her father.
In sum, the psychodynamic approach though positive in many ways is limited because it tends to ignore genetic factors unlike the medical approach and cultural and subcultural differences between societies in diagnosing and giving therapy to those with mental disorders like the medical approach. In its original form, the patients current concerns and interpersonal relationships were de-emphasised and there was undue focus on childhood experiences and sexual problems. The medical approach has proved positive where psychodynamic therapies have failed in including medically genetic factors and that drug therapies have proved effective, at least in the sense of reducing the symptoms of those suffering from mental disorders. Still there are negative sides, the medical approach ignores unlike the psychodynamic the more subjective side to disorders or background experiences, it has also been argued that with drug-centred therapies people stop working threw for example what would have been considered normal depression and finding out the cause, now "pop pills" to fix what was once every day life problems whereas the psychodynamic approach is more prone to work these problems out slowly.
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