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Discuss the use of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers in cellular pathology.

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Discuss the use of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers in cellular pathology. Biological markers are useful chemicals, which can be endogenous or exogenous such as inulin (Prevot A, et al., 2002), and can be proteins, receptors, genes etc. They confirm a diagnosis with different degrees of certainty according to their specificity and sensitivity; simply, they are processes which can be measured (Franz K., 2004). Markers are a response to abnormal cells or dysfunction of organs. They are either released from cells, displayed on cell surfaces, accumulate inside cells, or compounds injected into patients. Three types of markers used in cellular pathology will be discussed below. Diagnostic markers Diagnostic markers are used to confirm signs and symptoms or provide further evidence that a certain illness exists such as distinguishing a certain cancer from another. Diagnostic markers are commonly employed and are lately being discovered rapidly to aid in diagnosis of specific diseases. In some cases, they are not required as the tumour may be evidently large, whereas in other cases, the tumour may be small or poorly differentiated and presents similar signs and symptoms to other diseases, which is where the diagnostic markers are put best to use. ...read more.


Both markers are greatly expressed in patients suffering from colorectal tumours with an increased risk or reappearance. These markers may assist in making choices on controlling colorectal cancers. In comparison to healthy tissue, REG1A is increasingly evident in tumours. The period at which the recurrence happens is related to the amount of expression of REG1A (Froelich W., 2006), suggesting as REG1A rises, the slighter the chance of survival without the disease. Another attribute is seen when REG1A and EXTL3 expression is greater in tumours with peritoneal carcinomatosis (Froelich W., 2006). Therefore, these markers are imperative in determining decisions involving avoidance of the cancer chances of recurrence, and its treatment. From this it is clear that prognostic markers are exclusive in their role compared to diagnostic markers. A diagnostic marker informs the scientist of the presence of the disease, however, prognostic markers that are specific seem to be more useful as they inform scientists of a disease, chance of it occurring again, and its level of severity. Predictive markers As a general case, most anticancer therapies are unpredictable. Predictive markers indicate if a certain treatment should be given, what kind of treatment and weighs the advantages. ...read more.


[online] Availabe from: Pubmed. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16145046&dopt=Abstract> [Accessed 3rd November 2006]. Franz K., 2004. A Functional Biological Marker is Needed for Diagnosing Magnesium Deficiency. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. December. 23, (26), pp 2. [online] Available from: Pubmed. http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/abstract/23/6/738S [Accessed 30th October 2006]. Froelich W., 2006. REG1A and Its Receptor EXTL3 Are Prognostic Markers for Colorectal Cancer Recurrence. September. pp1. [online] Available from: American association for cancer research. <http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2006-09/aafc-rai_1091206.php> [Accessed 28th October 2006]. Fukumoto S,Yamauchi N, Moriguchi H, Hippo Y, Watanabe A, Shibahara J, Taniguchi J, Ishikawa S, Ito H, Yamamoto S, Iwanari H, Hironaka M, Ishikawa Y, Niki T, Sohara Y, Kodama T, Nishimura M, Fukayama M, Dosaka-Akita H & Aburatani H. (2005). Overexpression of the Aldo-Keto Reductase Family Protein AKR1B10 Is Highly Correlated with Smokers' Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas. Clinical Cancer Research. March. 11, pp 19. [online] Available from: Clinical Cancer research. <http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/11/5/1776> [Accessed 28th October 2006]. Prevot A, Martini S, & Guignard JP. (2002). Glomerular filtration markers in pediatrics. Pp. 625-30. [online] Available from: pubmed. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12611189&dopt=Abstract> [Accessed 29th October 2006]. Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak, H Fuchs S, Paton V, Bajamonde A, Fleming T, Eirmann W, Wolter J, Pegram M, Baselga J & Norton L., 2001. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. New Engl J. 344, pp783-729. [online] Available from: Breast cancer research. http://breast-cancer-research.com/paperreport/bcr-2001-68448 [Accessed 4th November 2006]. ...read more.

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