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Evaluate the postmodern discourse concerning cosmetic surgery and the 'mask of aging' Western Societies

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Introduction

Evaluate the postmodern discourse concerning cosmetic surgery and the 'mask of aging' Western Societies. Grogan, Sarah (1999) Body Image: understanding body dissatisdaction in men, women and children. London and New York: Routledge 2 4 25 41 48 49-52 57 68 151 152 191 Body Image: The picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say, the way in which our body appears to ourselves. (Schilder, 1950: 11) * (25) Slimness is seen as a desirable attribute for women in prosperous western cultures, and is associated with self-control, elegance, social attractiveness and youth...women have always been encouraged to change their shape and weight to conform to current trends. Through the ages women have undergone pain to attempt to conform to the current ideal. This is clear in relation to procedures such as foot binding and the wearing of restrictive corset, where women suffered discomfort and immobility in the name of particular fashions. In Western society in the 1990s we have replaced these practices with strict diets and cosmetic plastic surgery... ...read more.

Middle

ideologies of how womens bodies should look. She argues that women who believe they are somehow taking control over their bodies by opting for plastic surgery have really been coerced by family, friends, partners and indirectly by the medical professions....... Gilman, S.L. (1999) Making the Body Beautiful: a cultural history of aesthetic surgery. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. * In a world in which we are judged by how we appear, the belief that we can change our appearance is liberating. All of us harbour internal norms of appearance. BEAUTY & AGE * If the size and shape of body part come to be a measure of the boundary between the erotic and the unerotic, the perceived age of the body comes to have analogous importance. How does on "pass" as "young"? Age was understood by the Enlightenment as a disease analogous to 'fat'. The aged body is unaesthetic, unerotic and pathological. (The magic flute) * A ridge boundary between youth and age is notuniversally present across cultures and across history, but at the turn of the twentieth century, the number of individuals who desired to 'pass' as youthful began to increase. ...read more.

Conclusion

We are witnessing a normalisation of elective cosmetic surgery. As the author of an article targeted to homemakers remarks "For many women, its no longer a question of whether to undergo cosmetic surgery - but what, when, by whom and how much" (McCabe, 1990). * Not only is elective cosmetic surgery moving out of the domain of the sleazy, the suspicious, the secretively deviant, or the pathologically narcissistic, it is becoming the norm. The shift is leading to a predictable inversion of the domains of the deviant and the pathological, so that women who contemplate not using cosmetic surgery will increasingly be stigmatised and seen as deviant... * Deeper epistemological and metaphysical dynamics of the field of CS... * "Just the facts in America Ma'am" * From Artifice to artifice: the creation of robo woman? * Listening to the woman * Paradoxes * Are there any politically correct feminist responses to cosmetic surgery? Poole, M and Feldman, S (ed) (1999) A Certain Age: Women growing older. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin Garner, J. and Mercer, S.O. ed. (1989) Women as they Age: challenge, opportunity and triumph. New York and London: The Haworth Press. ...read more.

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