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HUMAN INHERITANCE assignment 1 for health studies

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Introduction

TASK 1 TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS This report is about the principle of reproductive and gene technologies and their implications for individuals, society and the environment. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: Reproductive technology is the application of scientific knowledge to assist in making babies in human and animals. This is a procedure used to solve the problems of infertility like couple or lonely single females who are desperate to have children. The basic idea about these technologies is the removal of egg cells and sperm cells which are used for fertilisation to occur out side the womb to produces a new life. A contraceptive technique is one type of reproductive technology. An example of one type of contraceptive is called contraceptive patch also known as Evra. This protects you against pregnancy and it is a small beige patch which is applied to the skin like a sticky plaster. The way the patch works is that it releases two hormones estrogen and progestogen which are similar to the natural hormones that women produce in their ovaries. This daily dose of hormones releases through the skin, into the bloodstream and it stop the ovaries from releasing an egg each month. It also makes it difficult for sperm to travel through cervix to reach an egg by thickens the mucus from the cervix. Fertilised egg is less likely to be accepted because the hormones make the lining of the womb thinner. On the contrary, this contraceptive technique does not protect you against Sexual Transmitted Infection. Assisted reproductive technology is another type of reproductive technology. It is a methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial means. This reproductive technology is used to treatment infertility in which both eggs and sperm are handled. The way they go about it is that they surgically remove eggs from a woman's ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and then insert them in the woman womb or donating them to another woman. ...read more.

Middle

Genetic counselling is the process of evaluating family history and medical records and advice given to them about the nature and possibility of inherited disorders and also the chance of developing or transmitting it. It also involved advice on helping parents understand and reach decisions about what to do next by finding ways in which it can be prevented, treated, and managed. This is more useful to individuals who are not pregnant and want to become pregnant so that the counsellors will be able to help assess their risk factors. It can be used even after you become pregnant. For example if a baby has been diagnosed with spina bifida before birth then the doctor will suggest a caesarean section this will lessen the damage to the spine because the baby does not need to go through the birth channel which will reduce strain due to which there will be a low possibility of the child needing a wheelchair. Genetic fingerprinting is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Although two unrelated individuals will have about 99% of their DNA sequence in common, this technique takes advantage of highly variable repeating sequences, the 1% is of an individual that makes them different from the others makes it possible for scientists to recognize differences between people and things that are identical. The use of this technique enable scientist to find a cure to disease and use it to help people with diseases. It also used in forensic science to helps to track down criminals by using DNA to match suspects to samples of a single drop of blood, or hair, saliva or semen was the only clue as to whether they are the one who has committed a crime or not. Genetic fingerprinting has not only been used for cure of diseases or forensic science and law, it has been a useful technique of settling maternity and paternity issues e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

DNA samples can be contaminated when collected and that poor lab procedures can result in mistakes. This will cause suspect to suffer the consequences of something that they have not committed. It will make them (suspect) go through psychological problems thinking that they will take their liberty from them by spending probably the rest of their life in prison. It requires further standardization and quality control, to be accepted across the world as a tool and There are only a few reliable labs around the world that can give accurate results 2. genetic counselling It helps them to understand the nature of the disease and what having it will mean in terms of what to do next and what options there might be for prevention/testing. Knowing that what they are going to hear might change their life will make them get worried. Also after finding out what might be the out come of their offspring it will makes the families/couples to be less interested in thinking of having a child because they might be scare. 3. In vitro fertilisation and/or artificial insemination It enables women with damage fallopian tube that are unable to have a child through sexual intercourse and men with less sperm count to have children. Therefore more people now being able to have kids. This technique does not work for everybody. Also it is expensive therefore is not everyone that will be able to afford it. 4. Gene therapy or genetic screening This technique is used to be able to find cure for disease like for e.g. diabetes, people with diabetes don't make insulin. However with the use of these techniques they can get a gene from healthy person and grow it in bacteria then take it out and put it in injection to inject people with diabetes. Using this technique might cause a problem in the future because it could affect the genes in the body. Continuing using this technique may alter other genes in the body and cause other disease to occur. ...read more.

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