• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In this essay I am going to be evaluating and assessing the work of Langer & Rodin and relating it to any other work that supports or contradicts their work.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In this essay I am going to be evaluating and assessing the work of Langer & Rodin and relating it to any other work that supports or contradicts their work. Langer & Rodin To explore the effects of decision-making and responsibility on residents in a nursing home, Langer and Rodin gave residents a houseplant. Residents were to make all the decisions about when and how much to water and how much sun to give their plant. Resident in the experimental group were also given other choices such as where they would prefer to receive visitors, whether they wanted see the weekly movie and which evening they wanted to attend (a movie was played on Thursdays and replayed on Fridays), etc. A comparison (control) group were also given plants but told that the nurses would take care of them. Those in this group were not encouraged to make decisions for themselves but were told that staff was there to help them. Issues were as similar as possible with the experimental and comparison groups except for the distinctions about who was in control and responsible for decisions. The researchers used various behavioural and emotional measures to judge the effect of the encouragement, for example, participation in activities at the nursing home, how happy the residents felt and how alert and active the residents were. ...read more.

Middle

With increasing age, however, variability in preferred amounts of control also increases, and sometimes greater control over activities, circumstances, or health has negative consequences including stress, worry, and self-blame. Mechanisms mediating the control-health relation include feelings of stress, symptom labelling, changes in the neuroendocrine and immune systems, and behaviour relevant to health maintenance. * Work which very clearly supports Langer & Rodin is that of Marmot et al (1997) and the study of civil service office workers: - Marmot et al (1997) Marmot and his co-workers devised an experiment to determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. There were self-report questionnaires provided for information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers. Setting: London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. Subjects: 10308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). Results: Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, have a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during the follow up. Job control was assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects in newly reported disease. ...read more.

Conclusion

they couldn't turn the electric shocks off completely, and so got stressed from having to continuously press the switch. * Weiss (1972) repeated Brady et al's experiment but with rats this time: - He found that giving feedback on successful shock avoidance (by sounding a tone) reduced ulceration in executives to below that of the non-executive rats. The feedback tells the animal it has avoided shocks and increases its 'sense of control' over the situation. The non-executive animal cannot respond and lacks any control at all over what's going on, this leads to more ulceration. ==> By comparing Brady and Weiss' experiments it's very clear to see that the idea of a 'sense of control' separates the two. Not as many animals will die in Weiss' as in Brady's, the rats don't feel as stressed as the monkeys because they feel more 'in control'. These studies also show the importance of control and feedback on successful coping in reducing levels of stress. ***THE SEVERLY STRESSFULL NATURE OF THESE EXPERIMENTS MAKES THEM UNETHICAL, AND SO CANT BE PERFROMED TODAY*** ==> These studies also show the importance of control and feedback on successful coping in reducing levels of stress. And from analysing and criticising these experiments and theories, it's clear to see a very obvious link between stress and control. This link shows that stress can cause illness but having the sense of control reduces the chance of becoming ill or having ulcers. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Healthcare section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Healthcare essays

  1. Research essay

    I have chosen the qualitative section of Parahoo's (2006) critiquing framework to help me critique Elkington et al.'s (2004) paper. I chose this model as I felt it offered a step- by- step guide, to the critiquing process, which is specifically aimed at beginners. Since the paper begins with a title this is the first part of the article to be critiqued.

  2. The basics of UV sun rays

    From a functional standpoint, sunscreens protect the skin like the natural pigment melanin. Sunscreens are formulated to protect against UVA rays, UVB rays or both. Those that protect against both contain at least two active ingredients. Most are water resistant.

  1. Hypothermia - description and experiment

    Treating Hypothermia * Put on additional layers of clothing, or replace wet clothes with dry * Get the person moving to increase their activity, * Ensure the surroundings are as warm and still as possible * Provide food, initially as hot liquids * Add warmth with a fire or from

  2. Hypothermia - experiment write up

    As the body temperature drops, shivering will stop completely. The heart rate will slow and a person will gradually lose consciousness. They won't appear to have a pulse or be breathing.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work