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Nature nuture

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Introduction

Introduction In this assignment I am going to discuss and evaluate the nature nurture debate in relation to individual development. The nature-nurture debate has been going on for centuries. Many people have debated to why we develop as we are. Some argue that development is based of factors which we go through in life. Others argue development is based on what we inherit. 'Extreme views support the notion that either nature or nurture is the primary influence on development. However, just as development has a holistic nature in which development in one area depends on and exerts an influence over development in one area depends on an exerts an influence over development in another development can be better explained in terms of an interrelationship between genetic(nature)and environment (nurture) factors. This interrelationship is not necessarily equally balanced. For example the development of the physical structures needed to crawl is dependant more on biological programming than, for example the space within the physical environment in which an infant can move.' Some theorists believe that people behave as they do according to genetic this is the nature theory oh human behaviour whilst other theorists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the "nurture" theory of human behaviour. Genetic factors Some argue that our genetics make up who we are. It has been argued that out genetic make up 'predisposes' individuals to certain behaviours, disorders and diseases all theses are explained by nurture. ...read more.

Middle

Bacteria and viruses are infectious agents causing infectious diseases this then passes from the mother to her un born child, infectious diseases such as HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, rubella, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis affects the development within the uterus. STD's such as genital herpes and weeping ulcers which are found on the cervix, vagina and vulva puts the baby at risk of infection if delivered through the birth canal. This can lead to blindness. Environmental factors The development of a child can be affected due to the amount of pollution in the environment. Pollution from traffic fumes may affect lung development as well as other body systems. For example air pollutants may result in respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia or respiratory diseases such as, lung cancer, heart disease, and damage to brain nerves, liver, or kidneys. According to Val Michie noise pollution such as loud background noise from aeroplanes, washing machines and television has been linked with delayed intellectual development. Individuals have many opportunities to develop as there are many facilities to promote this such as recreational and leisure facilities, these are important for growth and development throughout our lives. Eleanor Langridge suggests intellectual skills such as learning and understanding, creativity, decision making and problem solving. Emotional and social skills, such as confidence, self esteem, interaction, communication team work, sharing awareness of their personal, social and community responsible as individuals, group members and citizens. Physical skills such as mobility, fitness and co-ordination. ...read more.

Conclusion

This affects there development as they are more at risk to health problems such as diabetes and obesity. 'The Acheson of 10998 called this trend ''food poverty''.' Evolutionary psychology has been challenged cornering the adaptive ness in the EEA. A purely genetic perspective cannot explain the large quantity of evidence showing how experience alters the path of development. As there is little evidence to support these claims, critics claim that the evolutionary approach simply generates after the fact explanations. 'The nature nurture debate has important practical and political implications as discussed in the section development of measured intelligence. Gottesman's concept of a reaction range could be the best solution to the nature nurture question. According to Gottesman, genes do not determine behaviour but they establish a range of possible responses that a person will show to different kinds of life experiences. What this means is that the genotype sets the boundaries on the type oh phenotype that will develop. With respect to intellectual performance, Shaffer (1996) provides an example of the affects of varying degrees of environmental enrichment on three children. One who has high genetic potential for intellectual development, one whose genetic endowment for intelligence is average and one who's potential for intellectual growth is far below average. The fist child has the widest reaction range, varying from well below average in a deprived environment to far above average in an enriched one.' Reference: Dwyer, D and Charles, C (2006) Revise A2 Psychology key topics. Psychology press. Stretch, B. and Whitehouse, M. (2007) BTEC National: Health & Social Care (Book1). Heinemann. - 1 - ...read more.

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