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P2: Understanding how life factors and events may influence the development of the individual. Genetic predisposition to certain diseases

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P2: Understanding how life factors and events may influence the development of the individual Life factors Life factors can be divided into four categories and these are: * Genetic factors * Biological factors * Environmental factors * Socio-economic factors * Lifestyle factors Genetic factors Genetic predisposition to certain diseases The occurrence of many common diseases of adult life and birth defects have strong genetic elements, because of this a large amount of genes each act in a small way but it is significant to ensure whether the person is going to have the genetic condition. Scientists have studied identical and non-identical twins to find out whether people have a genetic disposition Phenylketonuira may be treated by putting the person on a diet which limits how much phenylketonuira is put into their body system. Testing as early as possible is essential because the symptoms are not present in a new born baby. Screen testing has now been essential for all babies. The diet needs to be started as soon as possible as retardation in the mind may start. There is an argument about how long the diet needs to be in place. This disease affects one in around 11,000 people. Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis affects in person in around 3,000 and around 7,500 people are affected in the UK. People with this condition have extra mucus in their lungs and they are not able to clear the airways of this extra mucus, they can also have breathing problems, and because of the inability to clear their airways they can develop chest infections as micro-organisms get trapped in the lungs. Physiotherapy is needed every day to clear the mucus of the lungs. People with cystic fibrosis have to have parents who both carry the cystic fibrosis gene in their DNA, as it is an inherited disease. Carriers of this disease don't show symptoms of this as they carry one 'normal' lung which is why a person with cystic fibrosis have inherited if from both parents as both parents would have one lung with the genes. ...read more.


* Chlorofluorocarbons- this is used as refrigerants and as propellant in the aerosol cans. They react with the ozone in the atmosphere which protects us from the sun's rays which are ultraviolet. The Access to leisure and recreational facilities Access to leisure and recreational facilities are essential for people to keep kick and to also feel good. It also helps people with their emotional and social needs as people who go to these places will get to know people from there and they will bond with people. Access to health and social care facilities The health and social care facilities have been split into three sections: * The public (statutory) sectors * The private sector * The voluntary sector The private and voluntary sectors are sometimes referred to as the independent sector as it needs no money from the government to help run the accommodation. Informal care is given by friends and family. The UK has a 'mixed economy of care' this is because of the different ways in which funding is given to different care sectors. Statutory carers are the Local Authorities and the NHS trusts, the independent carers are private sector agencies and voluntary sector agencies. Barriers to accessing health and social care services Factors that can stop people accessing health and social care services are called barriers to access. Some of the barriers can change the way in which an organisation operates. However not all barriers to access are the organisations fault. There are several barriers to access: * Opening times * Unfair discrimination * No wheelchair access * Waiting lists * Attitudes and prejudices * Labelling and stereotyping * Costs * Lack of information * Language Access to employment and income Access to employment and income are based on the qualifications you have, your language and communication skills. Education The education levels of individual people can affect the job they have and the amount of money they get paid. ...read more.


In the last 50 years there has been a decrease in smoking rates across all age groups, the biggest decrease being in the 50 and over's. People who are in their 20s are the ones with the highest rate compared to everyone else. Alcohol Alcohol is misused either when a person drinks excessively or people become dependent on it. There is lots of health risks linked to drinking the maximum recommended amount of alcohol. 14 units a week for women and 21 units a week for a man. Among teenagers and young people there is this culture of 'binge' drinking, this involves drinking lots especially on a weekend. The consumption of alcohol in teenage boys is decreasing where as for teenage girls it is increasing. Drugs Amphetamines (speed), cocaine (crack) and MDMA (ecstasy) are the most commonly misused drugs. All the drugs are class A, but if amphetamines is taken by the mouth instead of being injected it is then classes as a class B drug. There are three class types for illegal drugs, A, B and C. Class A being classed as the most dangerous. If you posses a class A drug the maximum penalty you will face is 7 years in prison and a fine, if you're supplying drugs you will get life and a fine. If you possess a class B drug you will have 5 years in prison and a fine, if you're supplying a class B drug you get 14 years in prison and a fine. Class c possession you will get 2 years in prison and a fine and if you're supplying class C drugs you will get 14 years in prison and a fine. Misusing drugs can lead and sometimes does lead to a fatal physical illness. If you are injecting drugs there is a chance of infection by sharing the hypodermic needles. Taking drugs can lead to problems psychologically mad socially. It is common for those who take drugs to turn to crime to pay for their habits. ...read more.

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