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Principal Sociological Perspectives on Society and Health

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Introduction

´╗┐Principal Sociological perspectives: There are many different approaches that have been used to understand and describe the different types of behaviour that takes place in society. These approaches would all have an impact in some way to an individual?s social life, even if it?s just with their health or well-being. There are seven different sociological approaches. These approaches are; Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism, Collectivism, New Right and Post-Modernism. The functionalist approach would best be understood when it is related to the human body. For example, just as the body would function from different organs such as the kidneys and lungs and the mechanisms would have to deal with the disease. It all has a different way of functioning just like the society, where different institutions would have a particular involvement to be made. Sociology (online) states: ?Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. The different parts are primarily the institutions of society, each of which is organized to fill different needs and each of which has particular consequences for the form and shape of society.? The functionalism approach would exist in the society by focusing on the shared values and social stability. ...read more.

Middle

This approach was discovered from Karl Marx (1818-1883) who believes that individual?s behaviour was all coming from society. He believes that there were two social classes which are; Capitalists, these are people who would have small powerful groups who own businesses and provide employment. The second class would be proletariat which is a much larger and poorer group who work for the capitalist in their business by being employed. These different classes were not necessary as these classes could result with riots taking place. Marxists argued that by the two different classes having different level of powers it would still mean that the proletariat would be receiving their wages and the capitalists would hold more power however, this would be unfair as the institutions would be more influenced by the capitalists due to the social class. The proletariat would be living in false consciousness as they would think that they are working hard for their money, however the capitalists would take advantage of this by making their own ideas and decisions having their own way. Atheism (online) states: ?Althusser argued that humans have no intrinsic qualities (or essence), but socially produced accidents. These accidents are the creation of social structures, and describing them allows us to describe both humans and the human condition. A practical result of this is that there is no essential "human nature" which cannot be changed, and so in order to change human behaviour or attitudes, ...read more.

Conclusion

Liberal feminism generally argues over the changes that are being made or need to be made. They believe that by the changes of legislations such as Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and Equal Pay Act (1970) it would give more equal rights to women. They also believe that these improvements would always be made when necessary through policies and legislations. Collectivism is an approach which is mainly used in health and social care services that is being structured by the government to provide the correct care and support to vulnerable people who would be funded through the National Insurance and Taxation. In many different areas of society there will be groups of people who are vulnerable. These vulnerable people may be, children, older people, people with learning disabilities and people with mental health issues and needs. Some of the societies would care for these people by seeing it as a responsibility of the family or the individual. However, in some societies it would be the responsibility of the religious group of local community. Stretch and Whitehouse (2010) state: ?There was an agreement made by cross-party that the state should be collective responsibility for, fighting disease through the National Health Service, Addressing poverty through a wide range of welfare benefits including Family allowance, Unemployment, Sickness benefit and retirement pensions and having policies of full employment. ? This then gave the state responsibilities with working closely with families, voluntary organisations that was to be funded by the National Insurance. ...read more.

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