• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Resentment towards the peace treaties at the end of the first world war made the rise of fascism inevitable Discuss with reference to Germany

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Resentment towards the peace treaties at the end of the first world war made the rise of fascism inevitable" Discuss with reference to Germany The effects of World War One and the Treaty of Versailles had huge implications for Germany and her people, both long and short term. The end of World War One ended abruptly and took both the allied troops and the people of Germany by surprise. The allies had operations planned far into 1919 and the people of Germany found it hard to accept as their army remained relatively intact and Germany remained unoccupied. This led to two factors which played an equally important role in the rise of fascism in Germany; Firstly the sudden end of the war and the harsh treaties imposed on her, and secondly the belief that Germany had been betrayed by her own people and 'stabbed in the back' in order to obtain a soft peace. Other factors arising out of World War One that could have played a part in the rise of fascism was the global economic crisis, which combined with diplomatic instability both internally and internationally hit Germany especially hard. Arguably some of the economic and internal political problems were created by the treaty itself, with many historians arguing it was both too harsh on the German people yet not harsh enough to cripple them forever or stop the rise of a fascist Germany. ...read more.

Middle

Another huge issue was the loss of German people, either through loss of territory or colonies this amounted to approximately six and a half million subjects, of whom half were German speaking. Ironically the treaty adopted a principle of national determination for everyone except the Germans, with huge amounts of Germans now in Poland and Czechoslovakia and millions more in Austria. This simply accentuated a sense of wounded racial pride in Germany and was a huge blow to national pride. Although these factors are not the sole reason for the rise in fascist Germany it does help to explain the German attitude to the peace settlement. It can also help to explain the reluctance of Germany to comply with the treaties, with defaults on reparation payments leading to the French and Belgian occupations of the Ruhr and secret deals with the Russians in order to seek rearmment showing a growing disregard for its authority. It can also be argued that the treaty would only be in place as long as the powers could enforce it, with all three leaders Wilson, Clemanceau and Lloyd George being out of power within a few years amendments and reductions in reparations became inevitable. This weakened the treaty and fuelled the growth of German right wing policies that called for it to be scrapped and the growing popularity among German people who now saw this as a right. ...read more.

Conclusion

In terms of the treaty it could be argued that although the seeds of a fascist Germany had already been sown, the treaty and the superpowers involved missed a real opportunity to stop the simmer pot of extremism that would one day go on to start the second world war. The terms of the treaty provoked resentment in the German people and they very much resented the fact that the peace was a 'dikdat' and without consultation. Reparations were harsh, completely unviable and led to further friction with France as well as contributing to the domestic and economic crisis that ensued in Germany in the 1920's. Displacement of Germans outside the borders only perpetuated nationalistic feelings and right wing fascist parties had easy pickings of issues to sympathise with. However although historians were previously quick to judge the right wing and fascist parties and assume they dictated their fascist ways on the German people, most modern historians now accept that it was the economic and internal political turmoil that made the rise of fascism possible. It could also be argued based on the evidence provided, that a large majority of the problems facing Germany were in actual fact caused by the treaty itself, the unfair conditions initially imposed and the lack of enforcement leading to the eventual breakdown of the treaty and the rise of the Nazi party itself. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain how the effects of the First World War caused the collapse of the ...

    4 star(s)

    the Bolsheviks to power because without the Bolsheviks presenting themselves as a strong alternative, the people may have chosen another party to rule Russia. As well as this, the strength of the Bolsheviks alone would not have been enough to bring them to power because if the Provisional Government had

  2. This essay will examine the rise of anti-Semitism from ancient times to the Holocaust ...

    Although the putsch failed, in some ways it could be seen to have been a success as it raised the profile of the Nazi Party and Hitler in particular.

  1. Why did Germany lose the second world war?

    As time passed the plan to invade Russia looked more and more overambitious. Even when defeat became certain, Hitler still refused to give up. A good example of this is when one of his top generals, who was leading the German attack of Stalingrad, sent a message to Hitler telling

  2. "Foreign success; domestic failure." How fair is this summary of Bismarck's governance of Germany

    He thought that the Party would encourage civil disobedience among Catholics whenever the policies of the state conflicted with those of the Church. His suspicions further increased as he observed how rapidly the part became the rally point for all those opposing the Empire.

  1. Hitlers Germany

    . . Adolf Hitler enters a hall. He sniffs the air. For a minute he gropes, feels his way, senses the atmosphere. Suddenly he bursts forth. His words go like an arrow to their target, he touches each private wound on the raw, liberating the mass unconscious, expressing its innermost aspirations, telling it what it most wants to hear."

  2. Vietnam war

    leading to the destruction of 3800 US aircraft and 1800 crew members. Impact of growing US involvement in Vietnam: South Vietnamese forces became totally dependent on international aid, even after Diem (US threats to reduce aid-dissatisfaction with Diem government- 1963 coup).

  1. Explain the role of Czechoslovakia in the appeasement story.

    On the second day of the conference (23rd September) there was no further progress. Chamberlain was annoyed because he was a gentleman and thus thought it was 'not cricket' how Hitler had given his word at Berchtesgaden and was now making further demands.

  2. The Holocaust was the result of Hitlers long held grand design to pursue a ...

    ?In 1942, systematic mass killing in stationary gas chambers began?in Poland. -Gassing Operations, US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Holocaust Encyclopedia This source is highly useful as it confirms the far more harsh tactics employed by the Nazi?s as a solution to the ?Jewish question?, beginning in 1941.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work