• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Ancient History The Battle of Watling Street "Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street" "Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street" Boudica and the Iceni were comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Watling Street for a variety of reasons. The overconfidence of the Celtic forces, in the wake of previous comprehensive victories, led them to severely underestimate the strength of the Roman forces and rely heavily on the power of numbers to achieve a victory. Roman General Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, although heavily outnumbered, made the correct tactical g decisions all but eliminated the Celtic numerical advantage. The highly disciplined and well trained Roman soldiers were able to withstand wave after wave of Celtic attacks due to a combination of their superior skills and equipment. The Battle of Watling Street marked the end of a successful rebellion by the Celtic tribes in Southern Britain. It was a victory of superior tactics versus overwhelming numbers. It was perhaps the success of the earlier stages of the rebellion that lead to the Celts being complacent. The success of the earlier stages of the Celtic rebellion led to the development of a sentiment of arrogance amongst Boudica's forces. The Iceni had enjoyed a number of successes, having sacked three major Roman cities in a short period of time. ...read more.

Middle

It is known that all Roman armies of the time period were incredibly well trained and skilled in the art of war. From the beginning a Roman soldier was put through rigorous training exercises and physically demanding maneuvers as well as sword and spear training.10 They were naturally very tough and had a brilliant mindset for battle due to the fact that Suetonius had minimised the effect of the Celtic numbers the Romans were now able to fight the battle on their own terms. They had a decisive edge when it came to hand to hand and close quarter fighting because of their superior training and weapons. The lack of Celtic discipline ultimately lead to a rout as defeat pressed in. This hefty advantage possessed by the Romans was enhanced greatly by the fact that they owned far greater weaponry and equipment. This was a distinct advantage and proved to be a lethal combination alongside their training and discipline. A Roman Legionnaire was equipped with a large shield, a sword and two spears called Pila. They also wore armour as an extra protective measure for the body.11 At the Battle of Watling Street this gave the Romans an immense advantage as their Celtic opponents were severely under equipped. Boudica's army were not issued with standard equipment and soldiers were largely unprotected. While most had a shield the majority lacked any form of armour . ...read more.

Conclusion

The book explains various facts about the Roman army including weaponry, training and military tactics. As shown in the essay it is necessary to understand such things in order to determine the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street. The source was not useful when examining the battle as a whole, but rather for taking it apart and examining things up close. 1 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius (1989), The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin, Aylesbury, Bucks, England 2 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 3 Dio, Cassius (1970), Roman History, Heinemann, Portsmouth, United Kingdom 4 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 5 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 6 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 7 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 8 Frere, Sheppard (1987), A History of Roman Britain, Britannia, London, United Kingdom 9 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 10 Davies, Roy W (1989), Service in the Roman Army, Columbia University Press, New York, USA 11 Heaton, Chris (2009), Organisation of the Roman Imperial Legion (online), UNRV. Available from < http://www.unrv.com/military/legion.php> (Accessed: 25 July 2009) 12 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 13 Heaton, Chris (2009), Legionary Weapons and Equipment (online), UNRV. Available from <http://www.unrv.com/military/legionary-weapons-equipment.php> (Accessed: 25 July 2009) 14 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 15 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 16 Frere, Sheppard , A History of Roman Britain ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?

    William also had better leadership skills than harold. Religion was extremely important in the 1066 in both norman and anglo saxon culture. William could not just demand support from his nobles, he had to convince them of his case.

  2. In this essay, I shall use primary sources to measure the short term significance ...

    They are to 'treat them in the most friendly & conciliatory manner,' inviting them to visit the United States. They are to come back if they are in danger for fear of losing 'the information you will have acquired' as much as for loss of life.

  1. William's Victory

    that God was on his side and believed that he should be successful in battle. Religion was extremely important at this time, and the belief that he had God's support for the battle would have encouraged William to fight at his best.

  2. Roman Army

    exploits were cheered at home - each victory against the uncivilised barbarians of France, Germany and Spain made him appear more and more of a hero in the eyes of ordinary Roman citizens, and indeed non-citizens. It is an important point that was not lost on the fascist leaders of the twentieth century.

  1. Ancient Societies, Sites and Sources The City of Rome

    The Curia partially remains today, converted to a Catholic church in AD 630. The walls still stand 31 metres high, and the foundations of earlier Senate buildings remain. The Forum, being the centre of the Roman state, was home to a great many religious structures.

  2. Mideival Outline Essay

    The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character fought from 1096 to 1291 by most of the Christian Europe against the Muslims in the Middle East. However, the Crusades were also launched against the pagan Slavs, Jews, Orthodox Christians, Albigenses, Hussites as well as against political

  1. Evalute the importance, strengths and weaknesses of the Spartan Army

    This depicts how the strict and un-changing nature of Spartan education led to an inability to adapt to strategic change and a quick downfall when flaws of phalanx were attacked. The Spartan way of life also instilled in its warriors a powerful mentality of ?fighting to the limit of their

  2. Notes on Cleopatra and her links with Rome

    In the lead up to this expulsion Rome had seized Cyprus. Cyprus had supplied ship timber and sailors for the essential maritime policy of Ptolemies and Auletes was blamed for the loss by the Alexandrians. Pompey the Great, however, helped Auletes to regain the throne and became the senate appointed

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work