• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Ancient History The Battle of Watling Street "Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street" "Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street" Boudica and the Iceni were comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Watling Street for a variety of reasons. The overconfidence of the Celtic forces, in the wake of previous comprehensive victories, led them to severely underestimate the strength of the Roman forces and rely heavily on the power of numbers to achieve a victory. Roman General Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, although heavily outnumbered, made the correct tactical g decisions all but eliminated the Celtic numerical advantage. The highly disciplined and well trained Roman soldiers were able to withstand wave after wave of Celtic attacks due to a combination of their superior skills and equipment. The Battle of Watling Street marked the end of a successful rebellion by the Celtic tribes in Southern Britain. It was a victory of superior tactics versus overwhelming numbers. It was perhaps the success of the earlier stages of the rebellion that lead to the Celts being complacent. The success of the earlier stages of the Celtic rebellion led to the development of a sentiment of arrogance amongst Boudica's forces. The Iceni had enjoyed a number of successes, having sacked three major Roman cities in a short period of time. ...read more.

Middle

It is known that all Roman armies of the time period were incredibly well trained and skilled in the art of war. From the beginning a Roman soldier was put through rigorous training exercises and physically demanding maneuvers as well as sword and spear training.10 They were naturally very tough and had a brilliant mindset for battle due to the fact that Suetonius had minimised the effect of the Celtic numbers the Romans were now able to fight the battle on their own terms. They had a decisive edge when it came to hand to hand and close quarter fighting because of their superior training and weapons. The lack of Celtic discipline ultimately lead to a rout as defeat pressed in. This hefty advantage possessed by the Romans was enhanced greatly by the fact that they owned far greater weaponry and equipment. This was a distinct advantage and proved to be a lethal combination alongside their training and discipline. A Roman Legionnaire was equipped with a large shield, a sword and two spears called Pila. They also wore armour as an extra protective measure for the body.11 At the Battle of Watling Street this gave the Romans an immense advantage as their Celtic opponents were severely under equipped. Boudica's army were not issued with standard equipment and soldiers were largely unprotected. While most had a shield the majority lacked any form of armour . ...read more.

Conclusion

The book explains various facts about the Roman army including weaponry, training and military tactics. As shown in the essay it is necessary to understand such things in order to determine the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street. The source was not useful when examining the battle as a whole, but rather for taking it apart and examining things up close. 1 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius (1989), The Annals of Imperial Rome, Penguin, Aylesbury, Bucks, England 2 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 3 Dio, Cassius (1970), Roman History, Heinemann, Portsmouth, United Kingdom 4 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 5 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 6 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 7 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 8 Frere, Sheppard (1987), A History of Roman Britain, Britannia, London, United Kingdom 9 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 10 Davies, Roy W (1989), Service in the Roman Army, Columbia University Press, New York, USA 11 Heaton, Chris (2009), Organisation of the Roman Imperial Legion (online), UNRV. Available from < http://www.unrv.com/military/legion.php> (Accessed: 25 July 2009) 12 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 13 Heaton, Chris (2009), Legionary Weapons and Equipment (online), UNRV. Available from <http://www.unrv.com/military/legionary-weapons-equipment.php> (Accessed: 25 July 2009) 14 Dio, Cassius, Roman History 15 Tacitus, Publis Cornelius, The Annals of Imperial Rome 16 Frere, Sheppard , A History of Roman Britain ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?

    Before 1066 William had already demonstrated his strength as a commander and soldier. His life was one of almost constant warfare as he carved out for himself a position as one of the most powerful and, when necessary, ruthless rulers of his day.

  2. In this essay, I shall use primary sources to measure the short term significance ...

    Mississippi, it 'masks sufficiently the real destination' which, at this point, is still on territory that belongs to others. The final version of the Instructions, dated June 20, 18036 provide a very detailed list of Jefferson's expectations. The principal objective is to 'explore the Missouri river' to see if it

  1. Ancient Societies, Sites and Sources The City of Rome

    It acquired sanctity due to its close association with the beginnings of the City of Rome, and was one of the most important religious districts of the state.

  2. Mideival Outline Essay

    The cities were more densely inhabited and for that reason the mortality from the plague was higher than in the countryside. The diseases symptoms were described in 1348 by a man called Boccaccio who lived in Florence, Italy: "The first signs of the plague were lumps in the groin or armpits.

  1. Roman Army

    Patriotism, nationalism and military success combined to make Caesar more popular than the state itself and to become quote literally larger than life. The significance likewise was not lost on the contemporary leaders of the Roman Senate who saw Caesar as the antithesis to their dream of a democratic empire,

  2. How effectively did the design and decoration of the Parthenon suit its function?

    This temple was created to better any that came before it. The standard hexastyle type temple that was the template for most Greek temple was not good enough for the Athenians as they wanted to express their supremacy in a physical feature to stand and out from the rest.

  1. Evalute the importance, strengths and weaknesses of the Spartan Army

    This depicts how the strict and un-changing nature of Spartan education led to an inability to adapt to strategic change and a quick downfall when flaws of phalanx were attacked. The Spartan way of life also instilled in its warriors a powerful mentality of ?fighting to the limit of their

  2. Notes on Cleopatra and her links with Rome

    Now Rome had entered Egyptian affairs irrevocably. Rome was not threatened by Egypt and felt secure in supporting Egypt as a non-competitor, as it possessed only one colony, Cyprus, after 96BC. Rome arbitrated again when Sulla installed Alexander, predecessor of Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy Auletes as king for 18 days and again when Auletes himself fled to Rome to escape the rebellious Alexandrians in 58 BC.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work