• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16

Evaluate the Nazis economic policies from 1933 - 1939. To what extent were the Nazis economic policies successful in making Germany ready for war by 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland?

Extracts from this document...


HIS 242 Term-paper Evaluate the Nazis economic policies from 1933 - 1939. To what extent were the Nazis economic policies successful in making Germany ready for war by 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland? Course Code: HIS 242 Student Name: Chan Yuen Man, Crystal Student Number: 991389332 Instructor's Name: Professor E. Jennings T.A.'s Name: Jerzy Borzecki Word Count: 3,013 words It is almost a universal conception that Hitler deliberately provoked World War II for his personal desires. Some historians prove this belief by Hitler's biography "My Struggle" (Mein Kampf) and his series of bold and aggressive foreign policies. While others confirm this notion by demonstrating the objectives of pre-war Nazis economic policies. They claim that Hitler immediately started carrying out rearmament program and various war-preparatory measures once he came to power in 1933. Because of his lack of planning and ignorance to the economic situation, he failed to prepare Germany for a major war by 1939, and he even failed to deal with Germany's own economic problems in 1932. However, this claim is not well justified. In fact, Hitler did put a lot of emphasis on economic recovery in the first three years of his regime. It is not until 1936 did he start accentuating his warfare programs. As a consequence, considering the time duration, the progress that the Nazi leaders made with their policies, and the "Blitzkrieg" war aim proposed by Hitler, actually Hitler was very successful in arming Germany and making Germany ready for a series of short but speedy wars by 1939 when he invaded Poland. When Hitler came into the office in 1933 he faced an economically devastated Germany. Although the economic situation was improved with aids given by the United States, Germany still suffered a great deal from the Great Depression in 1929, and "economic activity had recovered only slightly from the lowest point of the depression"1. Unemployment was the most serious problem at that time. ...read more.


and "Reich Loans" (Li-An-liehen). One of the very famous examples is the "Mefo-Bills", which were "three-monthly papers, could be extended to six months, drawn by firms with limited capital supplying material to the Armed Forces, 'accepted' by the Mefo and then discounted at the Reichsbank or sold to the capital market"22. This bill met about one-fifth of all expenditure for the armed forces in the years from 1933 until the outbreak of war23. The last task to complete the Autarky mission was to balance the foreign trade and exchange. In 1934 the Nazi leaders carried out the "New Plan", in which the basic idea was - "do not buy more than you can pay for and buy only really necessary goods"24. As expected, the implied aim of this plan was "to become independent of imports and develop raw materials production ... at home"25. This plan became dominant after 1936. Tight exchange control was applied in foreign trade and Germany established foreign trade with other countries by signing bilateral clearing agreements. Gradually, Hitler had created an economic around Germany (a cordon economique), which consisted of a number of friendly or neutral states - mainly, Southern and Eastern Europe, to be made dependent on Germany. In the three fiscal years ending March 31, 1939, Germany spent a total of 32 billion RM for rearmament. Solely in 1938/39, the government spent about 15% of the German GNP26. This amount was really substantial. As a result, what we can see is that there was a tremendous success but not yet a complete Autarky. The first achievement is full employment. By 1938/1939 there was only 0.4 million unemployment27. Concerning raw material synthesis, though by 1939 only the production of rubber and aluminum reached the requirement of the Four-Year Plan, there was a great increase in production rate in every industrial sector. For instance, the textile raw material total output increased more than fivefold from 1933 to 193828. ...read more.


42 5 Stopler Gustav, op.cit, Pg. 133 6 Sweezy Maxine Y., The Structure of the Nazi Economy, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1941, Pg. 183 7 Hardach Karl, The Political Economy of Germany in the Twentieth Century, University of California Press: Berkeley, 1980, Pg. 54 8 Sweezy Maxine Y., op.cit, Pg. 180 9 Braun Hans-Joachim, The Germany Economy in the Twentieth Century, Routledge, Champan & Hall Inc.: London, 1990, Pg. 98 10 Sweezy Maxine Y., op.cit,Pg. 181 11 Sohn-Rethel Alfred, The Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism, Free Association Books: London, 1987, Pg. 72 12 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 85 13 Klein Burton H., op.cit, Pg. 14 14 i. bid, Pg. 17 15 Guillebaud C. W., op.cit, Pg. 101 16 Stopler Gustav, op.cit, Pg. 133 & Pg. 142 17 i. bid,Pg. 135 18 Carroll Berenice A., Design for Total War: Arms and Economics in the Third Reich, Mouton & Co.: Netherlands, 1968, Pg. 129 19 Klein Burton H., op. cit, Pg. 39 20 i. bid, Pg. 43 21 i. bid.,Pg. 45 22 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 91 23 Hardach Karl,, op.cit, Pg. 63 24 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 101 25 i.bid, Pg. 102 26 Klein Burton H., op. cit, Pg. 19 27 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 92 28 Klein Burton H., op.cit, Pg. 48 29 i. bid, Pg. 49 30 R. J. Overy, op.cit, Pg. 53 31 i. bid, Pg. 40 32 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 103 33 Hardach Karl, op.cit, Pg. 70 34 Guillebaud C. W., op. cit, Pg. 148 35 Carroll Berenice A., op. cit, Pg. 128 36 i. bid, Pg. 191 37 Stopler Gustav, op.cit, Pg. 160 38 R. J. Overy, op.cit, Pg. 44 39 Carroll Berenice A., op. cit, Pg. 182 40 R. J. Overy, op.cit, Pg. 44 41 Carroll Berenice A., op. cit, Pg. 189 - 190 42 i. bid, Pg. 94 43 i. bid, Pg. 73 44 Hardach Karl, op.cit, Pg. 77 45 Braun Hans-Joachim, op.cit, Pg. 90 46 Hardach Karl, op.cit, Pg 75 47 i. bid, Pg. 79 48 Klein Burton H., op.cit, Pg. 26 Chan Yuen Man, Crystal 991389332 HIS 242 Term Paper 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How successful were Nazi economic policies in the years 1933-45?

    4 star(s)

    Schacht also introduced work schemes through the direct spending by the state on a range of investment projects. The main aim and focus behind this economic strategy is evident in the spread public expenditure in rearmament, construction and transportation. These work schemes were in reforestation, land reclamation, motorization and building.

  2. The government of the Nazi state was chaotic and lacked coherence in the years ...

    'Historians are in no fundamental disagreement over the fact that the government of Nazi Germany was chaotic in its structure' this statement suggests how the Nazi state was in effect extremely chaotic, 'it is of course easy to exaggerate the ordered character of

  1. Assess the view that the Holocaust was mainly a result of a long term ...

    of the need to address the Jewish Question in particular, with policy defined by the dialectic between spontaneous grass roots actions and top-down action, and resulting in formal legislation such as the Nuremburg Laws which would appease aggressive Nazi followers and a more conservative majority.

  2. The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler.

    The heart is no man's prism To cast a frozen shadow down the streaming future; At most a cold slipstream of empty sorrow, The grapes and melody of a dreamed love Or a vague roar of courage. No, I am not The meeting point of event and vision, where the

  1. How successful were Stalin's economic policies?

    The focus of the Five-Year Plans saw the completion of ambitious projects to provide power for the growth in industry, for example the Dneiper Dam. However, while there were improvements in industrial production, few industries succeeded in meeting the ambitious targets of the plans therefore failing to meet Stalin's aims.

  2. How Successfully in the period 1870 to 1914 did the ruling elites of Germany ...

    receive: "the workers seemed to have received social security as the price of political subservience". Political Change There were political implications from the social diversity of Germany. There was an intention to rally to lower orders, by promoting nationalism "through patriotism rather than socialism through internationalism" as S Lee puts it.

  1. The Holocaust was the result of Hitlers long held grand design to pursue a ...

    It is questionable that if Adolf Hitler was indeed so deeply intent on carrying out his long held anti-Semitic plans, then he would have certainly not left such a matter in the hands of anyone but himself, or at the very least attended!

  2. To what extent was Wilhelmine Germany an entrenched authoritarian state?

    Party after the lapse of anti-socialist laws, which shows that the government did respond to the calls of the people in some ways. The fact that Caprivi was practically forced to resign over such laws, his hand having been forced by the political manoeuvrings of the elites who so influenced the Kaiser, illustrates how apparent positive changes were quickly repressed.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work