• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far sas the Sino-Soviet Split of the late 1960s the result of ideological differences between the two Communist powers?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How far was the Sino-Soviet Split of the late 1960s the result of ideological differences between the two communist powers? By the late 1960s relations between China and Russia had deteriorated to the extent that disagreements resulted in armed conflict, with Chinese Red Guards attacking the Russian Embassy in Beijing in 1967 and the 1969 Ussuri River Dispute. This deterioration of relations, termed the Sino-Soviet Split, was largely fuelled by China's desire to assert itself as a world power, and Russia's determination to prevent this. Conflicting national interests caused relations between the two powers to deteriorate further, as conveyed by Russia's decision to double its army divisions on the Chinese border between 1967 and 1970 following border disputes. Ideological differences were still a source of conflict, as Mao was highly critical of Russia's decision to return to capitalist ideals, labelling Khrushchev and 'rightist' and 'revisionist'. While some historians argue that by the late 1960s merely provided the excuses for, and language in which to present, the divisions, the personal, mutual dislike between the two Communist leaders contributed significantly towards the Sino-Soviet split and was largely due to their differing ideological perspectives. ...read more.

Middle

However, ideological differences were not the only source of tension, as conflicting national interests further provoked disagreements between the two powers. Arguments arose over the USSR's refusal to reduce its ties to Mongolia, which China considered to be within its own sphere of influence, and the USSR actively prevented Chinese expansion in North Korea. Russia withdrew economic aid in 1960 and refused to share its atomic or space technology. She also attempted to isolate China in international affairs by strengthening its ties with Mongolia, North Korea and Vietnam following Zhou Enlai's2 attempts to present China as the leader of world revolution. Russia's actions are generally considered to be their attempt to thwart China's struggle to become a world power. Following the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia the Chinese knew that Russia was prepared to use force against another Communist country, causing them to fear invasion and even nuclear warfare. Their fears were augmented by the appointment of Colonel General Tolubko, deputy commander of the USSR's Strategic Rocket Forces, to command the Soviet Far East Military District. ...read more.

Conclusion

To conclude, the mutual hostility between the two leaders, caused by differing ideological perspectives, was the most significant factor which resulted in to relations between the two communist powers deteriorating. The legacy of Khrushchev meant that by the mid 1960s relations had been damaged irrevocably and, despite changes in Soviet leadership, resulted in numerous instances of direct armed conflict. Mao was also to blame, as he was intolerant of any ideas that he didn't consider fully in line with Communist theory, deeming them 'revisionist', and considered himself superior to Khrushchev as he had been in power longer. Hypocritically, he sought a Rapprochement with the US in 1969, which he had condemned the USSR for doing a decade earlier, suggesting that the personality clash of the two leaders may not have been purely because of ideology. Furthermore, conflicting national interests were not ideological in nature. However, the different ideological perspectives of the leaders provoked tension between them and meant that they could not be solved amicably, ultimately resulting in the Sino-Soviet Split. 1 Khrushchev Remembers by Nikita Khrushchev 2 The Chinese Prime Minister ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 2 Marilyn Wilkinson ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Superpower Relations 1945-90

    * However, Khrushchev did not intend to weaken the ties between the Soviet Union and the other countries of Eastern Europe. o He set up the Warsaw Pact in 1955. This was a defensive alliance of the Eastern European countries, controlled by Moscow.

  2. How far did life improve for the following groups between 1949 and the early ...

    The Communist government, however, refused to leave its land reform manifesto at this stage. The Five-Year Plan to revolutionise China's economy was underfoot, and mutual aid teams were not efficient enough to hit the high economic targets that Mao had set for China.

  1. Why was there a Sino-Soviet split by the late 1960s?

    A relationship between two powers that both thought they were right, yet had differing aims and methods, and continued to aggressively denounce each other's actions, was never going to be healthy, nor stable. This initial factor of a common ideology, which caused China and the USSR to unite, was ultimately

  2. How Far Did Life Improve For Women, Landlords, Businessmen And Peasants Between 1949 And ...

    While the new collectives still boosted production, increased effectiveness and management during Mao's Five-Year plan, merely five years after they'd received land, the majority of Chinese peasants found they were near landless again11. Although the rate of change was slowing after the frenzy of activity following 1949, Mao still had

  1. Armed forces.

    Mexico overthrown Rutherford's Nuclear model of atom; First air mail 1912 ANC forms in South Africa Titanic sinks Wilson president of US; Balkan wars; French protectorate of Morocco; Italy conquers Libya Jung's Psychology of Unconscious Stainless steel 1913 Crisis in Ireland; Ulster volunteers formed; Land reforms in favour of whites

  2. How far was the Sino-Soviet split of the late 1960s the result of ideological ...

    This didn?t improve the fact that Mao had been told by the USSR that they would receive limited military and economic aid, thus proving that the Soviets wanted to remain in control and limit their ability to prosper. The ideological differences between the two would cause many problems in which

  1. How Far was the Sino-soviet split of the late 1960s the result of ideological ...

    saw the USSR as limiting their ability to prosper- this was reinforced through the feeling that soviet economic and military aid would be limited. Khrushchev in his speech in 1956 had condemned the domestic policies of Stalin. Yet, Mao?s own domestic policies had been moulded on that of his idol,

  2. In the context of the period 1905-2005, how far do you agree that Khrushchev ...

    together.[4] The ?thaw? was the first attempt by a communist leader, to alleviate tensions between ideological and social demands, with John Keen claims: ?His [Khrushchev?s] greatest accomplishment was to end the reign of fear...?[5] Such policies are testimony of Khrushchev?s implementation of combating Long-term problems confronting Russia, as Khrushchev claimed: ?we must help people to...

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work