• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far was Russian economic policy determined by practical requirements between 1881 and 1922?

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐How far was Russian economic policy determined by practical requirement between 1881 and 1922? History Essay Between 1881 and 1922 Russia would see a vast amount of change under four different governments, all which brought in economic policies that they believed would benefit the country and its economy entirely. This essay will argue that even though there were practical and ideological reasons behind these economic policies, to a large extent, that war would be the main, specific practical reason as to why a majority of economic policies were put in place. In order to assess this argument, this essay will look at how the Russo-Japanese War, First World War and the Civil War would affect the economic decisions and policies made. On the other hand, this essay will also look at other practical and ideological reasons behind the application of some economic policies in this time period. Overall, between 1881 and 1921, to a large extent, the main specific, practical, reason for economic change was Russia?s participation in three different wars. To the largest extent, the most specific practical influence on the reforms and implementations of economic policies between 1881 and 1921 would be Russia?s participation in war. An example of this can be seen after Russia?s contribution to the Russo-Japanese war in 1904, which put immense pressure on agricultural Russia, as food was prioritised for soldiers; this caused food shortages within the countryside and in turn, general discontent which ultimately subsidized many socio-economic problems that became the reasons that led to the 1905 revolution. ...read more.


Such policies included, introduction of the Peasant Land Bank applied in 1884 to give peasants the financial incentive to travel to Siberia where they could purchase cheaper land which was available for settlement and produce more sought after agricultural goods, such as dairy products. Other policies included the creation of the Zemstvas, who were local elected councils who could provide the peasants with information on crop rotations, fertilisers and financial arrangements; this was important to increase agricultural output because peasants lacked the appropriate education to farm efficiently. Thus, Alexander III also supported education for the peasants, in church schools and later state schools, in order to produce an educated and efficient breed of peasants. These policies were put in place in order to compensate for the lack of industry with a more efficient and productive system of agriculture. Alexander, despite the need for economic development within Russia, from ideological perspective, could of felt particularly pressured to implement such policies by other European countries, such as Britain or France, who by this time seemed to be developing their industry at a far greater pace than Russia. Sergei Witte, between 1892 and 1903 introduced many economic reforms and policies that would later be known as the ?Great Spurt? or the ?Witte System?. Witte implemented policies that encouraged the production of capital goods; promoted the state to support industry as a whole and most importantly, he secured investments from foreign countries. ...read more.


During War Communism, economic policies such as the ban of private trade and abolishment of inheritance shows that the Communists did implement some economic policies as a result of their ideological aims; communism. The economic policies show that even though practical reasoning; particularly war resulted in the majority of economic policies that were implemented, there were some economic policies based on ideological reasoning. In conclusion, between 1881 and 1922, economic policies were to a large extent influenced by the practical reasoning of Russia?s contribution to war. However, there were other practical reasons too: to increase agricultural production in the late 19th century which Russia had relied upon heavily, to improve the country?s military and to become the ?Great Power? of Europe, which would be promoted by a thriving economy. Not only were there other practical intentions behind some of the economic policies but there were ideological reasoning; to improve the happiness of the peasantry class (the majority class) in Russia under the autocratic Tsarist Regime, the economic policies of State Capitalism as a result of Lenin?s April Thesis and how War Communism, even though its policies were promoted to support Russia?s war effort, did contain several that had ideological reasoning, that supported the party?s beliefs and opinions, behind them too. Overall, economic policies between 1881 and 1922 were to the largest extent, the result of Russia?s involvement in war, however, practical reasons and ideological motivations did contribute to the existence of certain economic policies. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Assess the economic, social and political consequences of the collectivisation of Russian agriculture in ...

    villages and left to starve, and people who were disobedient to this law faced severe penalties, such as being forced to work in a Gulag (a forced labour camp) (Ellman 2007 p668). There was also a food crisis in the urban areas, where the amount of food available per head

  2. How far do you agree that the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 was ...

    to a totalitarian government and it also took Bolshevism a long time to spread beyond the towns and truly become the government of all of Russia. It took the civil war to make this happen. For a final event that was to cause long lasting change we must look back

  1. Mussolini(TM)s rise to power up to 1922 owes more to the failures of others ...

    Even as the natural enemies of the Fascists, the left did very little to prevent them entering government and often, as shown by the Alliance of Labour strike, their attempts even helped the Fascists. Even with the limited opposition, the Fascists were by no means unbeatable and in 1922 Mussolini's authority within the party was incredibly weak.

  2. Was Russia more or less stable by 1881?

    Alexander II yet found himself in a difficult situation. He knew that fundamental reforms were inevitable to re-gain stability, but he was no liberal in that sense and wanted to stabilize autocracy rather than to liberalize and therefore endanger it.

  1. How significant was Piotr Stolypin in attempting to strengthen Tsarism between 1906 and 1911?

    Second Duma ministers asking Nicholas II to arrest them for ?conspiring against the state[10]?. The Duma appeared to have a fair democratic voting, but as Alan Wood states, Stolypin, ?in flagrant violation of the fundamental laws[11]? changed the electoral procedures establishing the Third Duma.

  2. How far did Russia undergo economic and political modernization from 1881-1905?

    Lastly however they were desperate for the peasants and workers to stay uneducated incase it would lead them to challenging the status quo. In 1881 the Tsar was faced with a dilemma, which to some extent slowed the economic and political modernisation.

  1. How far did government policies change towards agriculture in Russia in the period 1856-1964? ...

    well as Kulaks: the most dangerous were to be imprisoned or shot.[15] ?We must break down the resistance of the Kulaks and deprive this class of its existence?, as Stalin said to the Party Congress in December 1929.[16] With this, the policy of De-kulakization had begun.

  2. To what extent did the policies of Sergei Witte address the problems facing Russia ...

    He also negotiated huge foreign loans, particularly from the French. The problem with foreign loans was that interest payments had to be made regular intervals. Much of the economic development was financed from abroad, using massive inward investment from countries such as Belgium, France and Britain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work