• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How similar were the Nazi dictatorship in Germany and the Fascist dictatorship in Italy to 1939?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐How similar were the Nazi dictatorship in Germany and the Fascist dictatorship in Italy to 1939? In the violent post-war years from 1919 to the start of the Second World War, Europe saw the rise of several totalitarian regimes and ideologies. Amongst these were German Nazism, and Italian Fascism. The Nazi regime was led by Adolf Hitler, who gained power in 1933 by becoming the German Chancellor, and ultimately gave himself the title ?Fuhrer?, and established a Nazi dictatorship. Fascism was a dictatorial movement formed by Benito Mussolini in Italy. Fascism is an illiberal and highly nationalistic dictatorial ideology, aiming to overthrow democracy and set up a dictatorship. Fascism favours centralized control of private enterprise and repression and control of all opposition. Nazism is sometimes considered by scholars to be a form of fascism, and the two are fundamentally very similar. It has been said that much of Hitler's fascist ideas came from his admiration of Mussolini. ...read more.

Middle

Communism was generally regarded by the public with distrust due to their links with the USSR, and their ideals both gained considerable support through their opposition to Socialism and Communism and the class conflict which it seemingly promoted. A common antipathy against Communism that pervaded in German and Italian society gave momentum to Nazi and Fascist rising. Another core feature of both Nazism and Fascism was the union of state and business. The industrial and business aristocracy were protected by the government. In return for running the businesses, the government ultimately had control over important decisions. The Reichstag fire in Germany and the issue of a formal decree banning all other political parties in Italy in 1926 destroyed the parliamentarian machinery completely in the two countries In regards to domestic policies, Nazism and Fascism both employed methods to control their people. The Nazis made use propaganda mastermind Joseph Goebbels to spread their ideology and beliefs. ...read more.

Conclusion

The monarchy and Catholic Church was retained, and civil servants and local police still remained powerful factors in Italian life. This contrasts with the extent to which Hitler changed Germany society under his total authoritarian regime. By becoming Fuhrer, he was the sole and unchallenged leader of the State. Nazis took control of local government, labour, education, the youth and the army, who swore an oath directly to the Fuhrer. Other groups, such as the Church and the industrialists retained their influence, but under Nazi leadership. Before 1939, Hitler had shaped Germany into a war machine. He made rearmament a priority, and had an aggressive foreign policy. Despite Mussolini?s bluster, he did little to prepare Italy for war. Though his aims were to acquire territory, he was hesitant to use force. Italy was therefore totally unprepared for the Second World War. In conclusion, Nazi dictatorship in Germany and the Fascist dictatorship in Italy shared more similarities than differences. Hitler?s Nazism was certainly more extreme than Mussolini?s Fascism, and emphasized racism as a policy. However, it is important to note that both systems shared the same fundamental ideology of dictatorship. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. To what extent was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state before 1939?

    There were also conflicts between local administrators and Nazi provincial chiefs. Local parties interpreted policies in their own ways, they didn't fully obey all policies, for instance; some local parties persecuted Jews while others didn't. There was also more opposition and resistance than we are lead to believe.

  2. Evaluate the Nazis economic policies from 1933 - 1939. To what extent were the ...

    Therefore, this Autarky, in other word, meant the preparation to annex other countries and their resources to achieve a "fuller Autarky". However, even though Hitler did not want to launch a total war, a World War like the one happened in 1914.

  1. Hitler and the Nazi Regime - revision sheet.

    - Hitler held a general election in March 1933 because he believed the Nazis would get the majority. When they didn't, Hitler arrested the 81 Communist deputies giving him the majority. - The Reichstag created the Enabling Act on March 23, 1933.

  2. Why did Mussolini's Fascist Party become popular in Italy after the First World War?

    It made Mussolini popular for a time, but it also meant that he became even more under the influence of Hitler. In 1936 they signed the Rome-Berlin Axis. Mussolini declared war on Britain and France in 1940, but the Italian armed forces were not very successful.

  1. How much opposition was there in Fascist Italy?

    orders murdered both brothers. Also anti-Fascist concentration was established in Paris 1927, these people were mainly Socialists, and some Liberals. However, they stopped this organization because they were losing support to be more radical. When Fascists came to power they quickly attracted support from the southern ELITE and they were eager to maintain their

  2. Hitlers Germany

    Chamberlain arrived home with the unfortunate phrase, "peace in our time," and the conviction that appeasement had succeeded. Whatever his conviction, it was deadly true that Britain and France were in no military position either to fight or to bargain effectively.

  1. How totalitarian was fascist Italy?

    They were successful in suppressing rebels in southern Italy, which had been rife in the south for decades. Mussolini developed the education system to bring it under state control and through education, school children were indoctrinated with Fascist ideas. He banned all textbooks unless they were the compulsory texts and

  2. To what extent was Wilhelmine Germany an entrenched authoritarian state?

    Wilhelm II was also erratic and suffered from a delusion of his own power, ?There is only one ruler in the Reich and I am he?, and he was megalomaniacal, lazy and lacked the necessary understanding of critical issues to have any real involvement in decision making ? for example, he had never even read the German constitution.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work