• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In 1935 Mussolini wrote, "For Fascism the state is absolute, individuals and groups relative." Show how his rule of Italy reflected these beliefs.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In 1935 Mussolini wrote, "For Fascism the state is absolute, individuals and groups relative." Show how his rule of Italy reflected these beliefs. For Mussolini, coming into power meant he was going to have the chance to reestablish Italy as a great European power. Unlike the communist philosophy, the fascist philosophy, which Mussolini followed, sought to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging. The preceding quote stated just this; Mussolini was determined to put state affairs over individual ones. He was determined to improve political, economic, and social policies. First of all, Mussolini ran Italy's political system with vigor. He was seen by many Italian citizens as a Godsend, for he offered them jobs, guarantees against communism, and land (for the peasants). Mussolini mostly used force to keep the little opposition he had at a minimum. His alliance with the Black Shirts, a paramilitary organization, was beneficial, for they silenced any of those who spoke against the Fascist. As a dictator, Mussolini also continued his rule by censoring the press. ...read more.

Middle

The government reorganized the iron and steel industries, expanded hydroelectric plants, and embarked on other public works projects. He introduced many 'battles' against matters that needed improvements. He tried to make Italy self-sufficient in food and to increase the Italian population - farmers were encouraged to grow more wheat (the Battle for Grain), families were encouraged to have more children (the Battle for Births), and land for agriculture (the Battle for Land) was reclaimed. His aims, in the economic factor, were called 'productivism,' which was a battle to increase production. Within the Fascist Party there was a protection of private property and an encouragement of classes. Mussolini established a Corporate State, whose intention was not to destroy capitalism, but to create a new democracy. In theory, it was going to be a new type of democracy, but in practice, it was another form for Mussolini to gain strength and support. In 1934, Mussolini formed 22 corporations, or guilds, representing workers and employers in all phases of the economy. Each corporation included Fascist Party members on its governing council and had Mussolini as its president. ...read more.

Conclusion

Mussolini implemented a bachelor's tax for all men in order to encourage men to marry. He also offered loans as an incentive for married couples to have children. Furthermore, the prevention of increasing the population (i.e. abortions and birth control) was a major crime against the state and was prosecuted as such. In education, Mussolini demanded that the school be inspired by the ideals of fascism and to train Italian youth to understand fascism and live in the historic climate created by the Fascist revolution. In order to obtain such demands, the schools and education systems were gradually reformed; schoolbooks were rewritten, all teachers in schools and universities had to swear an oath to defend Fascist regime, and boys were expected to become soldiers, and all children were encouraged to join the Balilla - an organization which trained them to be good fascists. The year 1922 was renamed the Year One, since that was when Mussolini came into power. As can be seen, Mussolini was not concerned with the well being of the individual, but rather the state. His policies were intended to benefit Italy, as a country. His major concern was to bring Italy back to the great power it had once been in the Roman ages. "The State above all." ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Features of Fascism

    state" acted as a motto for fascism, also the aim for autarky was strictly expressed. Italian totalitarianism was indeed created by Mussolini but the man behind its driven force was Alfredo Rocco, sponsor of key administrative economic and constitutional legislation and the later minister of justice.

  2. Causes of show trials + purges of 1930s.

    Instead the Bolsheviks received support and sympathy leaving them just as strong as ever. When Lenin arrived back in Russia in April he used a slogan which united the people of Russia and helped gain support, "peace, bread and land".

  1. Soviet State

    * The answer was in Lenin's final articles 'On Co-operation'. It was to collectivise agriculture - collectivisation. The peasants would slowly give up small scale private agriculture, and join together in large, collective farms, which would enjoy all the advantages of modern technology and large scale production.

  2. How successful was Louis of imposing absolute control on government in the provinces?

    and if they didn't collect it to a satisfactory standard he would have words and they may be punished in some way. This shows if you cross Louis you will be punished and you needed to keep on the right side of him.

  1. To what extent was Fascism in Italy a revolutionary system that totally transformed the ...

    critics, democratic politics was a rotten game divorced from Italy's real needs."[6] But his dreams of a completely totalitarian state could not truly come to fruition, as he stated himself, "the Fascist Revolution halted at the throne." And so it would appear that it was a catalogue of misdeeds by

  2. Explain how Mussolini was able both to obtain office and to consolidate his power ...

    It was partly the frustration and disillusionment of the Italian people that led to a wave of strikes during 1919 and 1920, from which Mussolini benefited in two ways: through contrived shifts in support from the factory workers (whom he supported in order to secure votes), to the private enterprise

  1. Describe the circumstances in which Mussolini came to power and what did he achieve ...

    He once wrote that 'the national flag is for us a rag to plant on a dunghill'. Against the socialists, he founded the Il Popolo d'Italia (Italian People), a newspaper that was subsidized by industrialists who stood to gain from the war.

  2. Everything for the state, nothing outside the state, nothing above the state." So Benito ...

    nineteenth-century racialist theories, wedded itself to nationalism-from other forms of fascism that downplayed or shunned racism. (In Italy, for example, fascism was nonracist for more than a decade until Mussolini cynically began to stoke anti-Semitism in 1938. The unholy alliance of racism and nationalism is one reason National Socialism proved so much more destructive than Italian fascism.)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work