• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent had the Russian economy been successfully modernised by 1914?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent had the Russian economy been successfully modernised by 1914? When examining the extent to which the Russian economy had been successfully modernised by 1914 one must consider change and continuity within the Russian economy between 1856 and 1914. It can be seen that Russia was a backward, agrarian economy in which the peasants were an exploited underclass on who the economy relied. There were some changes attempting to release the break on the economy, for example, Witte's Great Spurt, which fuelled industry, what he believed was the key to economic stability, and the emancipation which aimed to increase mobility of labour forces and incentives. Whilst this was a successful period in economic, and industrial growth within Russia that can be seen as a period of economic transition moving toward a modern industry, however, by 1914, Russia was ultimately unsuccessful compared to the western economies. Ultimately, the fact that the Tsar was fearful of social change, which would occur under industrial modernisation, and above all wished to maintain autocracy, meant that any economic modernisation was limited by this antiquated political system. ...read more.

Middle

This connection between the peasant and the commune can be seen through the fact that only 2.4% of the 17.8 million peasants in Russia set up individual farms outside the commune. Furthermore, these reforms were limited by the preparation for war in 1914. Stolypin also aimed to improve the efficiency of agriculture, which he believed, would allow the peasants to prosper. Success can be inferred from the urban peasants working in the factories who returned to the commune for harvest increasing their chance of education and prosperity. There was further success in the presence of a few prosperous peasants known as Kulaks, however, this prosperity was not widespread and therefore it can be seen that the economic situation remained fairly constant. Productivity only increased by 1% per annum whilst the population was increasing at a higher rate, and therefore yields remained fundamentally unchanged. Whilst Stolypin ended redemption payments and poll taxes in hope of enhancing prosperity, taxes were increased in other areas and the peasants remained exploited, and the economic growth was therefore limited. The government saw the key to economic development not only as allowing prosperity but, paradoxically, by controlling the peasants; the promise of freedom offered under the emancipation was not something that was delivered by the Tsar; the peasants remained exploited and controlled. ...read more.

Conclusion

Finally, when examining the modernisation of the finance of Russia, one can see that the creation of a command economy... etc. restrictive. 1. Finance Situ: who pays for modernisation - restrictive Command economy- run by state, The development of the 5 1960 State banks and 4 commercial banks, which aimed to provide capital for investment, were a huge step towards modernisation of the economy, as the financial infrastructure is essential in any prosperous, modern economy, and links into the coherent programme of industrialisation. In January 1897, the Russia currency was returned to the gold standard, which created a more stable economy and currency, therefore encouraging trade and investment. This meant that the state were directly involved in the finance of industry through investment and therefore in the economic growth of country. However, Witte has been criticised for making Russia too dependant on foreign loans; he gained loans from France, UK and Germany which held high taxes and interest rates within Russia. Over half of all investment into Russia was into oil, mining and banking, which creates development in industry but, as this is investment from western Europe, the profit went out of Russia and failed to support, stabilise and modernise its economy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. To What Extent was the 1905 Revolution due to the Consequences of the 1904-1905 ...

    They believed that they could then create a communist state from this. Sergei Witte was the Finance Minister from 1892-1903. During his time in office he introduced many industrialisation policies. Under one of the policies, Witte had squeezed the urban workers and the peasants very hard.

  2. The British Raj has lasted many centuries and led to numerous transformations in the ...

    Britain helped India's agriculture by allowing some interest in cash crops. The Britain developed agricultural policies such as extending the market and allowing assets grow by an economic system. According to schlor Rothermund,there was a huge degree of manufacture of cash crops which provided great benefits (Rothermund 114).

  1. To what extent could the Crusades be described as failure within the years 1095-1195?

    The first goal for crusaders was Nicaea, once a place of great churches, and now the capital of the Seljuk Sultan Kilic-Arslan. 21 October 1096 Seljuks had already routed the peasant army of crusaders. Those peasants who had not fallen in battle were sold into slavery.

  2. Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing ...

    For example: ?There was very little investment in agriculture in Imperial Russia and this lead to small yields and economic volatility when prices rose and fell?lack of investment in agriculture frequently caused grain prices to rise which caused famines?[4] Overall, although agriculture grew slightly during the Tsarist regime, ultimately it suffered greatly as did the Russian people.

  1. To What Extent Was Russia Modernised During the Personal Reign of Peter the Great? ...

    Russian Orthodox Church says that if men allow their beards to grow they look more like Jesus and therefore devoted to God, they also believed that by shaving off your beard you were quite feminine. To try and get the Russian people to conform to this reform Peter began to

  2. The outbreak of the 1905 revolution was due to the grievances of the peasants ...

    He also followed his father policy of Russiafication. At this time Russia was made up of a large amount national minority. This policy out emphasis on all things Russian, it became the first official language. This coursed dissatisfaction an extensive portion of the Russian people.

  1. To What Extent Does History show that there is no such thing as absolute ...

    Although it can be argued that Stalin did have absolute power due to his position as General Secretary in the Politburo so he could allow his most trusted companions into the party, it could be see that the people

  2. Notes on Cleopatra and her links with Rome

    Auletes' gamble caused the Egyptians to resent the additional taxes and to view Auletes as a Roman stooge. Other members of the family were favored over him and eventually this led to Auletes being run out of Egypt and tow of his daughters then fought over his throne.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work