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Vietnam war

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* Total U.S. bomb tonnage dropped during: World War II = 2 057 244 tons Vietnam War = 7 078 032 tons (3.44 times as much as WWII) * Bomb tonnage dropped during the Vietnam War amounted to 1 000 lbs. for every man, woman and child in Vietnam. * An estimated 70 000 draft evaders and "dodgers" were living in Canada by 1972. * A Cornell University study placed the over-all total U.S. cost of the Vietnam war at $200 Billion * 30 April 1969 - Peak US troop strength 543 000 * Approximately 12,000 helicopters saw action in Vietnam * 9,087,000 military personnel served on active duty during the Vietnam era (August 5, 1964 - May 7, 1975). * 8,744,000 GIs were on active duty during the war (August 5, 1964 - March 28, 1973). * Married men killed: 17,539. * 61% of the men killed were 21 or younger. * Hostile (VC, NVA) deaths: 47,359. * Non-hostile (US, ARVN) deaths: 10,797. * POWs: 766 (114 died in captivity). * Total draftees (1965-73): 1,728,344. * Draftees accounted for 30.4% (17,725) of combat deaths in Vietnam. * Twenty-five (25) percent of the total United States forces serving in Vietnam were draftees * 76% of the men sent to Vietnam were from lower middle/ working class backgrounds * 82% of veterans who saw heavy combat strongly believe the war was lost because of lack of political will * (1993) Nearly 75% of the public agrees it was a failure of political will, not of arms. * The average age of the soldiers serving during the Vietnam War was nineteen (19). The average age of the soldiers serving during World War II was twenty-six (26). 1. Indochina after the French Consequences of the Vietnamese victory against the French: * News of DBP (November 1953- May 1954) arrived just as the Geneva Conference was proceeding on Indochina (8th May), the victory at DBP filled Pham Van Dong and the Viet Minh at the conference with an impetus of belief that they now held the upper hand in the discussions. ...read more.


� The pentagon believed air mobility and extensive, superior firepower, technology and industrial might will prevail over the ill equipped North Vietnamese army. * The USA ended up fighting neither a conventional war against the NVA, nor a counterinsurgency war against the Vietcong, but a confusion of both. * General William Westmoreland commanded the US forces from 1965 to 1968 � his strategy was of attrition. His strategy was to bomb north Vietnam to cut off supplies to the South and to 'bleed' the population and economy until its leaders made peace on US terms. * From 1965, much of the bombing, artillery fire, napalm and rocket firing was directed into areas within South Vietnam in an effort to flush out the Vietcong. * Saigon Command said that the Vietcong could only be beaten by : obliterating their strategic base, the rural population. 6 times as many bombs were dropped in South Vietnam than North Vietnam. * Between 1961 1969 � USA used herbicides to defoliate the environment and wipe out crop supplies. * American Firepower from the air. B52 Bombers � strategic bombing and tactical support. Flying at 10,000 metres, they could drop 27 tonnes of bombs each sortie� phosphorus, napalm and anti personnel cluster bombs, hurling metal fragments or ball bearings. Seven thousand kilogram monster Daisy Cutter bombs � clearings of 100 metre diameter. C123s� used to spray herbicides (20% of South Vietnam's Jungle, 20 % of mangroves and 42% of food crops in nine years). The South Vietnamese Army * Desertion rate of 30% per annum, Americans described them as 80% ineffective in their operations. Search and Avoid Tactics * ARVN forces worked largely on pacification programmes before Vietnamisation� not considered reliable or efficient enough for joint operations. * Trained by Americans to rely on firepower, the ARVN became dependent on costly and sophisticated equipment. * Trained neither for conventional nor guerrilla warfare� ARVN remained a predominantly defensive force that was reliant on helicopters, air and artillery cover as well as American finance. ...read more.


Shocked by the capitalist nature of the city dwellers and the failure to socialise towns, the frustrated Pol Pot decided to send the entire population of the towns into the countryside. Those leaving were told that the evacuation was due to the threat of severe American bombing and it would last for no more than a few days. He wrote at the time "If the result of so many sacrifices was that the capitalists remain in control, what was the point of the revolution?" Their attempt to build socialism was based on the interrogation, torture and killings of Buddhist monks, Western-educated intellectuals, educated people in general, people who had contact with Western countries, people who appeared to be intelligent (for example, individuals with glasses), the crippled and lame, and ethnic minorities. Cambodia did not possess a working class, so they adopted the non-Marxist principle of the 'peasants' as the 'true working class'. In 1976 people were reclassified as full-rights (base) people, candidates and depositees - so called because they included most of the new people who had been deposited from the cities into the communes. Depositees were marked for destruction. Their rations were reduced to two bowls of rice soup, or "juk" per day. This led to widespread starvation. The Khmer Rouge also classified by religion and ethnic group. They abolished all religion and dispersed minority groups, forbidding them to speak their languages or to practise their customs. They refused international aid based on their principle of 'self-reliance', this decision proved to be a humanitarian catastrophe, millions died of starvation and brutal forced labour. Pol Pot's regime was extremely paranoid. People were treated as opponents based on their appearance or background. Torture was widespread. Phnom Penh was turned into a ghost city, while people in the countryside were dying of starvation, illnesses, or execution. By the time the Vietnamese intervened in late 1978 Cambodia had lost around 2 million people, or 30% of the total population. (Alternatively 1.4 million, 20%, source: Amnesty International) ...read more.

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