• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18

Vietnam war

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

* Total U.S. bomb tonnage dropped during: World War II = 2 057 244 tons Vietnam War = 7 078 032 tons (3.44 times as much as WWII) * Bomb tonnage dropped during the Vietnam War amounted to 1 000 lbs. for every man, woman and child in Vietnam. * An estimated 70 000 draft evaders and "dodgers" were living in Canada by 1972. * A Cornell University study placed the over-all total U.S. cost of the Vietnam war at $200 Billion * 30 April 1969 - Peak US troop strength 543 000 * Approximately 12,000 helicopters saw action in Vietnam * 9,087,000 military personnel served on active duty during the Vietnam era (August 5, 1964 - May 7, 1975). * 8,744,000 GIs were on active duty during the war (August 5, 1964 - March 28, 1973). * Married men killed: 17,539. * 61% of the men killed were 21 or younger. * Hostile (VC, NVA) deaths: 47,359. * Non-hostile (US, ARVN) deaths: 10,797. * POWs: 766 (114 died in captivity). * Total draftees (1965-73): 1,728,344. * Draftees accounted for 30.4% (17,725) of combat deaths in Vietnam. * Twenty-five (25) percent of the total United States forces serving in Vietnam were draftees * 76% of the men sent to Vietnam were from lower middle/ working class backgrounds * 82% of veterans who saw heavy combat strongly believe the war was lost because of lack of political will * (1993) Nearly 75% of the public agrees it was a failure of political will, not of arms. * The average age of the soldiers serving during the Vietnam War was nineteen (19). The average age of the soldiers serving during World War II was twenty-six (26). 1. Indochina after the French Consequences of the Vietnamese victory against the French: * News of DBP (November 1953- May 1954) arrived just as the Geneva Conference was proceeding on Indochina (8th May), the victory at DBP filled Pham Van Dong and the Viet Minh at the conference with an impetus of belief that they now held the upper hand in the discussions. ...read more.

Middle

� The pentagon believed air mobility and extensive, superior firepower, technology and industrial might will prevail over the ill equipped North Vietnamese army. * The USA ended up fighting neither a conventional war against the NVA, nor a counterinsurgency war against the Vietcong, but a confusion of both. * General William Westmoreland commanded the US forces from 1965 to 1968 � his strategy was of attrition. His strategy was to bomb north Vietnam to cut off supplies to the South and to 'bleed' the population and economy until its leaders made peace on US terms. * From 1965, much of the bombing, artillery fire, napalm and rocket firing was directed into areas within South Vietnam in an effort to flush out the Vietcong. * Saigon Command said that the Vietcong could only be beaten by : obliterating their strategic base, the rural population. 6 times as many bombs were dropped in South Vietnam than North Vietnam. * Between 1961 1969 � USA used herbicides to defoliate the environment and wipe out crop supplies. * American Firepower from the air. B52 Bombers � strategic bombing and tactical support. Flying at 10,000 metres, they could drop 27 tonnes of bombs each sortie� phosphorus, napalm and anti personnel cluster bombs, hurling metal fragments or ball bearings. Seven thousand kilogram monster Daisy Cutter bombs � clearings of 100 metre diameter. C123s� used to spray herbicides (20% of South Vietnam's Jungle, 20 % of mangroves and 42% of food crops in nine years). The South Vietnamese Army * Desertion rate of 30% per annum, Americans described them as 80% ineffective in their operations. Search and Avoid Tactics * ARVN forces worked largely on pacification programmes before Vietnamisation� not considered reliable or efficient enough for joint operations. * Trained by Americans to rely on firepower, the ARVN became dependent on costly and sophisticated equipment. * Trained neither for conventional nor guerrilla warfare� ARVN remained a predominantly defensive force that was reliant on helicopters, air and artillery cover as well as American finance. ...read more.

Conclusion

Shocked by the capitalist nature of the city dwellers and the failure to socialise towns, the frustrated Pol Pot decided to send the entire population of the towns into the countryside. Those leaving were told that the evacuation was due to the threat of severe American bombing and it would last for no more than a few days. He wrote at the time "If the result of so many sacrifices was that the capitalists remain in control, what was the point of the revolution?" Their attempt to build socialism was based on the interrogation, torture and killings of Buddhist monks, Western-educated intellectuals, educated people in general, people who had contact with Western countries, people who appeared to be intelligent (for example, individuals with glasses), the crippled and lame, and ethnic minorities. Cambodia did not possess a working class, so they adopted the non-Marxist principle of the 'peasants' as the 'true working class'. In 1976 people were reclassified as full-rights (base) people, candidates and depositees - so called because they included most of the new people who had been deposited from the cities into the communes. Depositees were marked for destruction. Their rations were reduced to two bowls of rice soup, or "juk" per day. This led to widespread starvation. The Khmer Rouge also classified by religion and ethnic group. They abolished all religion and dispersed minority groups, forbidding them to speak their languages or to practise their customs. They refused international aid based on their principle of 'self-reliance', this decision proved to be a humanitarian catastrophe, millions died of starvation and brutal forced labour. Pol Pot's regime was extremely paranoid. People were treated as opponents based on their appearance or background. Torture was widespread. Phnom Penh was turned into a ghost city, while people in the countryside were dying of starvation, illnesses, or execution. By the time the Vietnamese intervened in late 1978 Cambodia had lost around 2 million people, or 30% of the total population. (Alternatively 1.4 million, 20%, source: Amnesty International) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Who gained the most from the Lichfield House Compact

    The landlords became impatient, as not only were they waiting on their own payments; they also were paying money to the poor - who weren't paying them! The result was widespread eviction happening around the country. Also those in the parish that were due to pay their half of the

  2. Causes of show trials + purges of 1930s.

    A dual system such as this could only survive with widespread support from the population of a country. It is of no surprise that the Bolsheviks seized upon the popular discontent with the system and took over in October. Dual power, it can be said, is not an accurate description

  1. What was the impact of transport improvements on the nature of warfare 1792-1945?

    Moreover it also contained the purpose to capture the Confederate capital Richmond. This would not only preclude the South from selling cotton to foreign countries, but would also close down the way for their war supplies and soldiers to be delivered.

  2. To What Extent did Commandos contribute to final victory in World War Two

    "There ought to be at least 20,000 Storm Troops or 'Leopards' drawn from existing units, ready to spring at the throats of any small landings or descents."8 In May 1940 Churchill asked his chiefs of staff to give a reasoned assessment of Britain's ability to continue the fight.

  1. Success of Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Emancipation Campaign

    The Bill finally became and Act must to the dismay of the Ultra Tories and the King. D O'Connell's Leadership Long Answer: "The winning of my country's freedom is not worth the shedding of a single drop of human blood."

  2. BomberHarris and Strategic Bombing

    three squadrons of He-51 fighters, a Reconnaissance Group with two squadrons consisting of He-70 bombers and He-70 reconnaissance bombers and finally, a Seaplane Squadron which consisted of He-59 and He-60 float planes. Hitler hoped that by sending the Luftwaffe to fight in the Spanish Civil War they would acquire experience and would have the opportunity to practice their tactics.

  1. The Easter Rising At noon on the 24th of April 1916, a thirty-seven ...

    and 2,500 were wounded. The ruined city totalled an estimated damage up to �2,000,000.00. Home Rule had dominated Irish politics since the 1870's; it was strongly opposed by the northern unionist community, they saw "Home Rule as Rome Rule". In the spring of 1912, the British government of Herbert Asquith had introduced the Third

  2. The Impact of Stalins Leadership in the USSR, 1924 1941. Extensive notes

    Even during the peaceful 1920s, the party had used propaganda to justify its policies. Propaganda also had an ideological function: 1. Communist enthusiasts did not just want to win support for policy, but also wanted to coax the population into thinking in Marxist terms.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work