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The hospitality industry is in a unique position for the creation of an automated supply.

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Introduction

I. Introduction The hospitality industry is in a unique position for the creation of an automated supply Chain. Most hospitality organizations function with two units, franchise locations and corporate owned locations. Currently most corporate-owned hotels procure their goods through the headquarters, and franchise hotels procure goods independently. If hotels integrated the entire spend of every hotel, franchise or corporate, they would stand to save substantially on purchases. However, hotels must make the procurement process simple and cost-attractive to the franchises in order to ensure their participation. Of the hotel chains that currently do this, virtually all use horribly outdated business practices, intensive manual labor, and time-wasting paperwork and processes. These can be easily replaced today with automated, electronic processes. In hospitality organizations (hotels, casinos, resorts), the overall emphasis has been moving towards automating the purchasing and receiving process. In fact, many hotels are now electronically ordering directly to corporate offices and regional purchasing centres. The centralized system creates a purchase order and sends the order via integrated facsimile to vendor supplier. Once the order has been created in the system, an electronic copy of the purchase order is transmitted back to the unit level so that orders can be reconciled electronically as they are received. Another operation generates a "market list" from the ship and electronically sends the list to the corporate central purchasing system, which issues a purchase order and then transmits a copy of the purchase order back to the ship. The ship, like the hotel described above, also reconciles each purchase order based on receipt of goods. 1.Just in time The characteristics of JIT purchasing differ from the traditional purchasing strategies. JIT purchasing principles, the main objectives are to achieve reduced inventory holding costs, increased quality levels and increased utilization among many others. JIT sourcing, in theory, provides many benefits to the buyer, but many buyers in practice are not implementing the requisites that are generally considered to be essential and resulting in a number of problems for their suppliers, which in turn affect the buyer. ...read more.

Middle

Passive heating: The building is elongated on the east-west axis and contains a wall of windows on the south side to take full advantage of solar energy and natural ventilation. � The atrium and Living Machine in particular are designed to collect sunlight. � Dense materials with high "thermal mass", such as the concrete floors and exposed interior masonry walls, retain and re-radiate heat. This reduces the amount of additional heat necessary during times when the sun is not shining. Passive cooling: � Windows on the lower south wall and upper north wall of the atrium create a natural convective cell that provides a light, interior breeze that cools the space during summer sun. � Office spaces have operable windows. �A trellis is planned for the east side of the atrium. During summer months deciduous plants will shade this wall. During winter months the plants will loose their leaves allowing nearly full light to penetrate. � A roof overhang shades the south side of the building from direct sun during the summer months. � The elongated corridor provides cross ventilation Temperature control: The use of separate heat pumps in each room allow for careful control of temperature and energy use. In the offices, climate is controlled with a simple thermostat that the occupant sets at a desired temperature. Climate in the classrooms is controlled by carbon dioxide and motion sensing devices so that rooms are only heated; cooled and ventilated when they are actively in use. The heat pump in the auditorium is programmed to provide a comfortable environment during all scheduled classes and events. Temperature in the atrium is also programmed to provide a comfortable environment during hours when the building is occupied. Windows in the classrooms and offices are operable. The building computer controls windows in the atrium. Ventilation is also very important for the comfort of the users of a certain building. ...read more.

Conclusion

Prices always vary according to the type of room (single, twin etc.) and its facilities. The decision of the room rate is helped by the determination of the so-called "weightings" those are usually a matter of judgment. For instance if a single person is occupying a double room, he should be paying more than just for a single because he is using up more space but on the other hand it wouldn't be fair for him to pay a double rate. One type of room rates in hotel, especially resort ones, would be the seasonal rates. The philosophy here is that in off-peak times, the rate is always lower in order to attract clients and in the peak times the prices are considerably higher to maximize profit. It may happen that according to the type of room, the differences in rates may be greater. The next type on our agenda is the weekday and weekends rates. Especially in the business hotels, the weekday occupancy is greater than in weekends. On the principle of seasonal rates, Hotels may differ the prices. The weighting has to be determined again and the technique is fairly similar. It is impossible to attract customers at the weekend with prices that you give out during the weekdays; therefore the rack rate has to be reduced. Marginal cost is always about covering at least variable cost and contribute at least a little to the fixed costs. Marginal pricing is being used more for weekend breaks, off-season holidays, conferences and special events. But in order to approach the determination of the inclusive term we have to look upon two things - the characteristics of the hotel and the guest. The type of tariff has to depend on the guest requirements such as length of stay, spending power, homogeneity and predictability. The hotel characteristics depend on its grade, size, and type of business, location and marketing considerations. 1 ...read more.

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