• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Analyze the contribution of psychological contract literature to the understanding of OCB.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Analyze the contribution of psychological contract literature to the understanding of OCB. The aim of this essay is to analyze the contribution of the psychological contract literature to the understanding of organizational citizenship behaviour ("OCB"). We shall argue that while the concept of psychological contract provides a useful framework for the understanding of why an employee may engage in OCB, its capacity to help managers adopt measures to foster greater levels of OCB among employees is considerably hindered as a result of the adoption by a majority of researchers of the definition proposed by Rousseau (1989, 1997) which is characterized by a focus on individuals' perceptions of promises made by organizations rather than on the actual content of these promises, as supposed they even exist. OCB has been defined by Organ (1988) as "behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization". The process through which an employee comes to engage in OCB has been described in the OCB literature has being strongly dependant upon individually-based perceptions of organizational procedural justice (Tepper, Lockhart and Hoobler 2001) ...read more.

Middle

Acknowledging that breach does not necessarily equate with violation (Morrison & Robinson 1997), it could be that the only situations in which employees highly involved in OCB would stop reciprocating their employer through OCB would be upon the occurrence of events of sufficient magnitude to cause both breach and violation. Support for this argument could be found in a study performed by Robinson & Rousseau (1994) that showed that employees who exhibit a strong attachment to their employers are more likely to react adversely to contract violations. The psychological contract framework therefore appears appropriate for the study of the causes explaining why an individual withdraw from OCB, although any explanations that is derived from it will generally be individual-specific, as it shall be discussed in the following paragraphs. It has been said that "the practical importance of OCBs is that they improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness by contributing to resource transformation, innovativeness and adaptability" (Organ 1988; Williams and Anderson 1991). It would appear however that the achievement of this objective is considerably impeded when the psychological contract framework is used to examine OCB. ...read more.

Conclusion

This situation, which stems mainly from the nebulosity regarding the identity of the co-contracting party to the psychological contract under Rousseau's definition (Guest 1998), thus also reduces the credibility of the conclusion achieved by Coyle-Shapiro and Kesler (2002). Assuming that it would be possible for a co-contracting party to measure an employee perception of its obligations and its degree of fulfilment, it remains that the proof of the bi-directionality of the reciprocal norms would be true only for this particular relation. Under this optic, the conclusion reached by Coyle-Shapiro and Kesler (2002) could still be of some usefulness in studying OCB aimed at other individuals inside an organization ("OCBI") but not for the study of OCB aimed directly at the organization ("OCBO"), unless a construct could be devised to integrate all the psychological contracts in which an employee is engaged. Consequently, though the psychological contract literature may contribute to explaining the reasons for which a particular employee may engage in OCB, the nature of the prevailing definition of psychological contract limits considerably its usefulness for organizations and managers searching for elements to devise strategies to sustain and increase OCB among a plurality of individuals. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Law of Contract section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Law of Contract essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Contract Law - Offer And Acceptance

    3 star(s)

    * by supplying or despatching goods in response to an offer to buy them21, or by beginning to render services in response to an offer in the form of a request for them22 * an offer to supply goods can be accepted by using them(4 unsolicited)

  2. Four ways in which a contract may be discharged.

    under s 1(2), and the effect, in relation to the said benefit, of the circumstances giving rise to the frustration of the contract. BP Exploration Co (Libya) Ltd v Hunt (no 2) [1982] 1 All ER 125. In December 1957 the Libyan Government granted the defendant a concession to explore for and extract oil from a specified area of Libya.

  1. I have been asked to advise a client on considering contracting with a building ...

    He alleged that the defendant had promised to pay six guineas (�6.30) for appearing." (Taken from Common Law 1 BPP) The outcome of the case was that there was not any consideration for this promise as the claimant was obliged to appear in court by law.

  2. In advising Bennys position of the interest over the said property (the flat), it ...

    there must have been a representation or promise, (b) he must have acted to his detriment, and (c) his detrimental conduct must have been undertaken in reliance on the representation or promise. In addition, the form of representation must have been proved in either an active representation20 or passive representation21.

  1. Legal Studies Assess Two

    However, it is important to note that the outcome may not have been just for the individual, Ivan Milat. To this day, he still says that he is innocent. After the jury returned its guilty verdict, Milat was asked he had anything that he wanted to say - all that he said was 'I'm not guilty of it.

  2. "It would be hard to over emphasise either the contribution made by implied terms ...

    On the other hand when the employee wants to change the contract the same has to be done, the reason for the employee wanting to change the contract would be to bring about improvements of pay, requesting additional holidays or even requesting to change from full time employment to part time employment due to domestic or social circumstances.

  1. What is the importance of implied terms to the contract of employment

    reasonable orders, to exercise reasonable care and competence, to cooperate, to maintain fidelity and good faith. The employer's obligations to the employees include the duty to pay wages, to (sometimes) provide work, to exercise care and to cooperate15. Terms implied into to contract of employment help to protect the interests

  2. LAW OF CONTRACT. LAW 103. THE CONTENT OF THE CONTRACT.

    (c) Terms implied in fact. Terms may be implied because the very nature of the contract requires it or because the application of an objective test makes it apparent that the parties must have intended it. It may be that its omission was a simple mistake or that both parties thought

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work