• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent has the EU become more integrated since 1992?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

To what extent has the EU become more integrated since 1992? (20) The integration (strengthening of cooperation between EU member states as national governments to allow for the gradual centralisation of power within European institutions) of member states of the European Union is a highly politicised issue in Europe. To some extent, the EU has become more integrated since the ascension of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. One policy area which has resulted in greater integration within the EU is the single currency. The Maastricht Treaty aimed to introduce a single currency within the EU by setting criteria which member states had to achieve to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the introduction of a single currency. Despite the withdrawal of the UK and Italy from the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) in September 1992, it did lead successfully to the introduction of the Euro into the economies of eleven of the member states, as well as successive intakes of four other countries into the 'Eurozone'. ...read more.

Middle

After its creation by the six founding states in 1957 (following the establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community) the EU has grown to 27 member states. There have been five enlargements, with the largest occurring in 2004, when 10 new member states joined. Enlargement can be seen as promoting integration within the EU, as not only does it synchronise several policy areas (during the period of time where the membership criteria are fulfilled) and aids democracy in new members, but it also supports the European economy as a whole. Suggestions of a common European foreign and defence policy, as well as common foreign affairs policies, have also sparked further integration within the EU. Although the EU is not a state in itself, there are a number of multi-national military and peacekeeping forces which are ultimately under the command of the EU, and therefore can be seen as the core for a future 'EU army'. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lisbon Treaty: with increasing co-decision powers, national vetoes may be removed in such key areas as migration, criminal justice and judicial and police cooperation, encouraging greater collaboration amongst EU member states. To some extent, however, the EU has not become more integrated since the ascension of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. One way in which this can be seen is through the increasing amount of opt-outs available in certain policy areas. In general, EU law is valid in all 27 EU member states; however, occasionally member states negotiate certain opt-outs from areas of certain treaties of the EU, meaning they do not participate in the common structure in these fields. The most significant opt-outs have included Denmark, Sweden and the UK's opt-outs of the single currency; and the UK and Ireland's opt-out of the Schengen Agreement. These opt-outs have hindered integration within the EU, providing for a two-speed Europe by allowing closer cooperation between countries wanting to forge ahead on certain area and leaving others behind. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Miscellaneous section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Miscellaneous essays

  1. Customer experience management in UK higher education

    In such sense, Higher education is aimed at the renewal continuous knowledge and skills needed to maintain the value of human capital in the global economy driven by technology. Higher education serves the instinct of survival of those societies (and within them, individuals)

  2. Investigating The Use of Pectinase

    Therefore, the enzyme had been completely denatured and there were no active sites to occupy the substrate of pectin. Looking at my results, I can clearly see that the total volume of juice produced increases as the temperature of the experiment increases.

  1. Physical preparation and fitness for the uniformed services

    Deficiencies in diet causes people to feel ''high''3[5] and spaced out and separated from emotions. According to a recent study in California University, poor nutrition, characterized by Zinc, Iron, vitamin B and protein deficiencies, in the early years of childhood leads to anti social behaviour, aggressiveness and a low I.Q level.

  2. Distinguish between direct and representative democracy

    This is an example of when representative democracy backfires, not by making the wrong decision but for acting on it without discussion with the people.

  1. Miller sets out in The Crucible to create a totally unsympathetic character in Abigail. ...

    However, Miller did make it possible to have some sympathy with her character. In holding up a mirror to his own society, he shows what the puritan society has done to Abigail. As a playwright, he is motivated to show the weaknesses of his own society and therefore Abigail could be seen as the victim.

  2. Why did the desegregation of schools become a major problem in the USA in ...

    as black children or to be taught by a black teacher as they would find the idea of a white child being disciplined by a black teacher impossible.

  1. Origins of Statutory Regulations and Controls

    domestic, commercial and industrial buildings. Within The Building Regulations are sections that deal with different aspects of building control, for example; ==> What defines 'building work' ==> What types of buildings are exempt from The Building Regulations ==> It describes the procedures to follow when starting, carrying out and completing

  2. How does building policy in Wales compare with policy in Scotland in terms of ...

    The Code for Sustainable Homes is a 6 level rating system that judges the sustainable performance of house on energy and CO2 emissions, water run off, materials, waste, pollution, health and well being, management and ecology [6] that was launched in December 2006.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work