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Electronic Music.

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Introduction

Electronic Music Electronic Music may include tape music (existing only on tape, and played through loudspeakers), live electronic music (created on synthesizers or other electronic equipment in real time), musique concr�te (created from recorded and subsequently modified sounds), or music which combines live performers and taped electronic sound. Although these types of music refer primarily to the nature of the technology and techniques involved, divisions are increasingly blurred. Other terminology, such as computer music, electro-acoustic music, acousmatic music, and radiophonic music, has also come into use, more often to indicate aesthetic rather than technological preferences. In the early 1900s the Italian Futurists, led by composer Luigi Russolo, envisaged a music created with noise and electronic "music boxes", and the first commercially available electronic music instruments appeared at this time. However, although visionary composers like Scriabin and Henry Cowell had dreamt of music created by purely electronic means, electronic music first became realistically possible when recording technology developed during World War II. ...read more.

Middle

In the late 1940s in Germany, Werner Meyer-Eppler, a physicist and Director of the Institute of Phonetics at Bonn University, first demonstrated a Vocoder, an analytical device which included a synthetic human voice. His theoretical work influenced the composers associated with the West German Radio studio in Cologne (founded 1953), who were concerned with the electronic synthesis of sounds, through the use of tone generators and other sound-modifying devices. The first director of the Cologne Studio, Herbert Eimert, was highly influential in his method of using total serialism as a basis of constructing electronic works. In this method all aspects of music, including pitch, rhythm, and relative volume were controlled by numerically defined principles. Electronic sounds and devices provided a suitable precision and control for the realization of this concept. By a process known as additive synthesis (see section on sound synthesis, below) composers such as Maderna and Stockhausen laboriously constructed short electronic pieces, derived entirely from electronic sounds. ...read more.

Conclusion

During the 1960s and 1970s the Americans Paul Lansky and Barry Vercoe, among others, developed music software packages (computer programs specifically designed for the manipulation and creation of sound) which were freely available to interested composers. This tradition of software development at American universities has done much to aid the growth of computer music worldwide. The Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) at Stanford University, in California, and the Institut de Recherche et de Coordination Acoustique/Musique (IRCAM) in Paris, founded by Pierre Boulez in 1977, both made significant use of computers and remain influential centres of electronic music composition today. The rapid development of computing technology, in the last 15 years or so, has brought about a revolution in computer music and electronic music in general. Computers are now more affordable, and computer programs which originally took hours to run can now be completed in a matter of seconds, or even in real time. Today, many universities have a computer music studio and several countries have national studios, devoted to the composition of electronic music. In addition, composers are increasingly working independently, in personal studios. Ashley Sewell 11E ...read more.

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