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Anatomy and Physiology.

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Introduction

Complementary Therapies BSc (Hons) Level One Semester 2 Module: Anatomy and Physiology Course Tutor: Heidi Yates Sharna Richardson. Contents Sections Title Page 0.0 Introduction 1 1.0 2 Introduction The purpose of this report is to enable me to review and consolidate what I have previously learnt and, through personal research, to study some aspects of muscle physiology in further depth. My report consists of a brief description of how bone growth occurs, referring to the process of ossification, the role of cartilage, calcium homeostasis and the factors, which cause the skeleton to undergo a spurt of growth in puberty. The report then moves on to describe clearly, with the use of diagrams, the movements possible in a synovial. The joints described are the knee and the hip joint. A fully labelled and annotated diagram of these synovial joints is included. Finally, my report explains clearly the events leading up to contraction of a muscle fibre, and includes labelled diagrams to explain the process. There is also a large diagram showing the structure of a skeletal muscle, which is fully labelled and offers brief explanatory notes on each part of the structure. Task 1 - The Growth of the Skeleton The skeletal system of the body provides support and protection, it allows body movements, and is the site of blood cell production and stores minerals and fats. ...read more.

Middle

The bones of the hip and knee joints are separated by a joint cavity, lubricated by synovial fluid, and enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule. There are 6 types of synovial joints: ball and socket; hinge; pivot; gliding and condyloid. The hip is a ball and socket joint and, the knee is a hinge joint. The Knee Joint or tibiofemoral joint: Are the largest and most complex diarthrosis joint in the body, it is located between the femur and the tibia bones of the leg, and is classified as a hinge joint. At a hinge joint, one bone has a convex surface (in this case the femur) that fits into a concave depression (in this case the tibia) of the other one. Hinge joints are monaxial, which means they can only move one way or on one plane, like a door hinge for example. The knee joint allows flexion and extension, but when the knee is flexed it is also capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding. The Hip Joint or Coxal Joint: Is a ball-and-socket joint, the smooth, convex head of the femur fits into the acetabulum - a concave socket in the os coxae (one of the bones in the pelvic girdle) - to form the coxal, or hip joint. The hip joint is a multiaxial joint, which means it can move in three ways or on 3 planes. ...read more.

Conclusion

The end-plate potential (EPP) is this rapid fluctuation in membrane voltage at the motor end plate. 5. Areas of sarcolemma next to the end plate have voltage gated ion channels that open in response to the EPP. Some of the voltage-gated channels are specifically for K+ and allow it to leave. These ion movements create an action potential; therefore the muscle fibre is now excited. Excitation-Contraction Coupling Process refers to the events that link the action potentials on the sarcolemma to activation of the myofilaments - protein microfilaments in the muscle, mainly made up of myosin or actin - thereby preparing them to contract. There are 4 steps in the coupling process: 1. A wave of action potentials spreads from the end plate in all directions, like ripples on water. When the wave of excitation reaches the T tubules, it continues down them into the sarcoplasm. 2. Action potentials open voltage-regulated ion gates in the T tubules. These are physically linked to calcium channels in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), so gates in the SR open as well and calcium ions diffuse out of the SR, down their concentration gradient and into the cystol. 3. The calcium ions then bind to the troponin of thin filaments. 4. The troponin-tropomyosin complex change shape and moves to a different position. This therefore exposes the active sites on the actin filaments and makes them available for binding to myosin heads. Contraction then occurs. ...read more.

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