• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

A study into social representations of sexuality

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Contents Page Abstract Page 2 Introduction Pages 3-8 Methods Results Discussion References Page 9 Appendix 1 Page 10 Appendix 2 Page 11 Appendix 3 Page 12 Abstract The main aim of this study was to investigate social representations of sexuality through the media of FHM magazine, in terms of body exposure. The hypotheses were that there would be more partially clothed women displayed than partially clothed men, and more fully clothed men displayed than women. This was a content analysis where all people featured in the magazine that were larger than an eighth of an A4 sheet of paper were counted. The men and women were classified separately into two categories: partially clothed or fully clothed. It was found that the greater proportion of those partially clothed were women, and the majority of those fully clothed were men. The results were statistically significant. This study concluded that women are portrayed as sexual objects more than men in FHM magazine. Introduction Social representations are common sense ideas, thoughts, images and knowledge which members of a group share, that help us to interpret and understand our social world. They explain attitudes towards complex concepts such as sexuality, intelligence or education. (However, they differ from culture to culture, for example, the concept of education would mean something different to a Maori tribesman compared to a westernised American.) ...read more.

Middle

See Appendix 1 for examples. Procedures Every person displayed in all eight magazines, whether they were female or male from an advertisement, feature or a photograph with an article was counted, on the condition that their bodies occupied a larger space than an eighth of an A4 size sheet of paper. The small advertisements at the back of the magazine were discounted for practical reasons. The men and women were classified separately into two categories: partially clothed or fully clothed. To operationalise our findings precisely and increase inter-rater reliability, it was agreed that a 'fully clothed' person would have to be wearing enough to be considered presentable in public. That is to say a 'partially clothed' person would have areas of the body exposed that would be inappropriate for public display, for example the torso (and breasts in females), buttocks and upper thigh. Pilot Study Our pilot study helped us to ensure our methods were practical, for example, to determine which images should be included in the study. We realised that it would be painstakingly difficult to count every single small advertisement at the back of each magazine, therefore it was decided that they would be discounted. To ensure there was a specific boundary for this rule, it was settled that only the bodies larger than an eighth of an A4 sheet of paper would be included. ...read more.

Conclusion

inferior positions on the floor or superior positions on a chair) or how men and women posed differently (animalistic poses perhaps suggesting submission and inferiority compared to bold, strong, upright poses). If we perceive these results to be an accurate depiction of sexuality in society's view, they are useful in determining certain social representations of men and women. Sexuality was operationalised by the amount of body exposure, and from finding that women were displayed as partially clothed much more than men, we could suggest that this illustrates how women are thought of as sexual objects of desire, supported by Courtney and Lockeretz's (1971) findings (70% of women in the advertisements studied were used for decorative purposes), rather than independent people on a level of equality with men. The equality between the sexes perpetuates against the common sense theory, and therefore is much harder to overcome. Our research could be extended by investigating other magazines that are geared towards different sectors of society, such as teenagers, young women, older women, older men and non-gender magazines - this magazine may be biased towards young men because exposure of women is in their interest. We could use the same method that was applied in this study and compare it to these findings to create a more accurate picture of the general opinion of sexuality in men and women. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Social Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

Design, implementation of the research and analysis are reasonably clear and detailed. Are there ethical considerations to be included? 4*

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 03/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Social Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The effect of the Level of Processing on the amount of information recalled

    4 star(s)

    We often rehearse information to use in the near future, and allow it to be then discarded. Aim - To see if words that required understanding the meaning of words in given questions (semantic processing) were more frequently recalled by participants than those associated with the appearance of the word (structural processing)

  2. Marked by a teacher

    I think that Social Psychology can only explain some of why football hooliganism happens

    4 star(s)

    They then link their self-esteem to that of the in-group. They find differences between themselves and the fans in the out-group as they are wearing different shirts or colours and they subsequently realise that the out-group have different interests to them and they notice that they are people they do not wish to associate with.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Social Learning Theory

    3 star(s)

    As the Social Learning Theory incorporates cognition, it is therefore after referred to as the Cognitive Social Learning Theory. The term inhibition refers to when for some reason, we chose not to perform a behaviour that we have previously learned.

  2. The Concepts Of Conformity And Obedience

    Others who were acting as prisoners also showed signs of anxiety and depression. According to Zimbardo, these results showed how easily people could adapt to a new role in a new situation and behave out of character to fit that role.

  1. Evaluation of Milgram's Obedience Study

    In this experiment 75% of participants continued to administer up to the maximum shock, even after the puppy had stopped responding to the shocks. This experiment was also highly criticised in a similar way to Milgram's due to the same ethical issues Another are of Milgram's experiment that Orne & Holland criticised was mundane realism.

  2. Controversial issues in psychology.

    with their product (conditioned stimulus) to produce a positive attitude towards their product (conditioned response). This helps to give positive attitudes towards the products. Motivation is also linked to having positive attitudes. Advertisers aim to formulate attitudes within ourselves, perhaps through the use of conditioning at higher-order level, and/or operant conditioning.. Staats and Staats (1958)

  1. Aggression and the Social Learning Theory

    Aggressive behaviour can be learned because a person is rewarded for aggression, "when a child's aggressive act succeeds in intimidating other children they become increasingly more aggressive" (Patterson et al, 1967 cited www1.appstate.edu/aggsociallearning). Rewards are the most common factor behind aggression continuing.

  2. Obedience & Conformity: The Situation In Abu Ghraib

    Results from varies social psychology studies and experiments have proved that when an inferior is obeying orders they see themselves merely agents who execute another?s will. Therefore, they are absolved of responsibility or if the actions are bad ones, absolved of guilt.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work