Anxiety disorders. There are four main anxiety disorders recognised by doctors and psychiatrists. These are generalised anxiety, phobias, obsessive compulsive behaviours and post-traumatic stress. Anxiety is a central symptom of all of these. Symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety affects an individual psychologically and physically. It can range from mild to extreme attacks. Psychological symptoms - Feelings of unease, panic and dread. He or she might feel that, with very high levels of anxiety, they are about to die or lose control of their bodily functions. Patients may find it difficult to concentrate, and feel jumpy or unable to relax. Physical symptoms - Increased heart rate (palpitations) and increase in breathing. This is called hyperventilation and is experienced as extreme breathlessness and a sensation of tightness in the chest. Hyperventilation leads to a reduction of carbon monoxide in the blood, which causes the person to feel faint. He or she may also have a dry mouth, a tingling sensation in the hands or feet, headache and back pain. Generalised anxiety disorder. Generalised anxiety occurs in a continuous and unfocused way. There are no specific or obvious external triggers to create a feeling of anxiety. In effect the person is anxious about anything and everything. It is sometimes called free-floating anxiety. It typically begins in a persons mid-teens, and
Assess the usefulness of participant observation as a sociological method
Assess the usefulness of participant observation as a sociological method Unlike other research methods participant observation allows the sociologist to look at people in their natural environment. It is often referred to as a naturalistic approach. The research does not artificially interfere with people's lives and they are free to act as normal. This allows the researcher to gain an insight which surveys cannot produce. This is illustrated by a well-known quote: "As I sat and listened, I learned the answers to questions I would not have the sense to ask if I had been getting my information solely on an interview basis." By W.F. Whyte, "street corner society" 1981. The kind of data produced by participant observation is qualitative, that is to say it is a picture of the world through the eyes of people themselves, whether they be members of a religious movement, a gang of delinquents or a group of school pupils. If the researcher can prevent their presence from altering behaviour then the data should also be a valid picture of the group's behaviour. For some types of research there may be no good alternative to participant observation. Certain deviant groups or behaviour would not be possible to study using any other method. Participant observation is particularly effective if a clearly identifiable group is being studied who are prepared to have an observer
Assess the usefulness of participant observation in sociological research
Assess the usefulness of participant observation in sociological research. In this short essay I will give a skilled weighed argument of the usefulness and non-usefulness of a participant observation. I will back up the points made during this piece with sociologists I have studied. After, which I will then reach a conclusion where I will justify the argument in depth. Observation means watching behaviour in real-life settings. A covert participant observation is when the subject(s) you're studying doesn't know that you're actually studying them. An overt participant observation means that the subject(s) you're studying are aware of the fact that you're studying them. There are many reasons why a participant observation is seen as a very useful way to gather research. This is because you are taking part with the observation and would therefore be able to really get an insight into the topic you're studying. Also if it is a covert participant observation you're more likely to gather valid data as the subject(s) being studied don't have any idea of the reason for your presence and, what's more, the subject(s) can't mislead the researcher. Ned Polsky did a study of hustler beats. It was a covert participant observation which meant that he was free to ask questions without arousing suspicion. Also he believed it gave him a real accurate in sight to the behaviour behind his
Describe how psychologists have defined and explained substance abuse.
segcgcw orgc gck ingc fogc gc. Describe how psychologists have defined and explained substance abuse. Psychologists have defined the abuse of a substance as the misuse of a substance which is psychologically and physiologically addictive. Such substances can include alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, and harder drugs such as heroine and cannabis. An abuser has an inability to stop using the substance(s) and it not only has negative effects on themselves, it also has effects on factors such as the friends and family. It is often the case that a substance is ingested so much that the body adapts to it and the users tolerance level causes them to seek increasing amount of the substance. If the abuser is not able to provide them with an increased amount of the substance, their body becomes affected and thus the withdrawal effects may involve uncomfortable cravings for the substance. Rosenhan and Seligman defines substance abuse as the the clear existence or a pattern of pathological or heavy daily use with a strong inability to stop or decrease the use of a substance, thus becoming dependant upon the substance. The findings of their study also show that heightened problems developed as seen from a social aspect, such as losing friends, and also from an occupational point of view for example, repeatedly losing jobs. In certain cases these problems developed as a result of substance
Pro and Anti Social Behaviour
Pro and anti social behaviour Altruism - Helping behaviour (e.g. where behaviour brings a risk to the helper). Based on a desire to help rather than on possible rewards. It could be based on empathy - the ability to share the emotions of another person Bystander Apathy - Not helping when help is required Aggression - Any behaviour that is intended to harm another person Media Influences on pro and anti social behaviour - Positive and negative effects of media on behaviour (e.g. TV, video games...) Altruism This is pro-social behaviour that is voluntary and helping. It is costly to the person who is altruistic and based on a desire to help rather than on rewards. It is thought to depend on empathy - ability to share emotions and understand feelings. Altruism theories/explanations Socio biological theory - altruism as innate It is thought that altruism could be an evolutionary trait. This theory basis itself on the explanation that any behaviour that promotes survival will be retained in future generations because of natural selection. Those who do not possess these behaviours will die or not reproduce. This is confusing with altruism as one may risk their own life when acting altruistically, therefore sacrificing themselves. This means that altruistic behaviour would be die out and selfishness would be selected in. This is the paradox of altruism. It is possible
Is Psychology a Science?
Is Psychology a Science? Psychology is commonly defined as 'scientific' study of human behaviour and cognitive processes. Broadly speaking the discussion focuses on the different branches of psychology, and if they are indeed scientific. However, it is integral in this to debate to understand exactly the major features of a science, in order to judge if psychology is in fact one. There must be a definable subject matter - this changed from conscious human thought to human and non-human behaviour, then to cognitive processes within psychology's first eighty years as a separate discipline. Also, a theory construction is important. This represents an attempt to explain observed phenomena, such as Watson's attempt to account for human and non-human behaviour in terms of classical conditioning, and Skinner's subsequent attempt to do the same with operant conditioning. Any science must have hypotheses, and indeed test them. This involves making specific predictions about behaviour under certain specified conditions, for example, predicting that by combining the sight of a rat with the sound of an iron bar banging behind his head, a small child will learn to fear the rat, as is the case of Little Albert (1923). Also, empirical methods are used in scientific fields to collect data, relevant to the hypothesis being tested, as is the case in many psychological experiments, such as the
Organizational Behaviour --Ideas and Concepts as the Writer Understands As we all know and have all experienced, organizational behaviour is the knowledge concerned with the structure, functioning, performance of an organization, and the behaviour of groups and individuals within it. Organizational behaviour is a wide-spread notion and closely related to organization chart, organization culture, organization development, organization dilemma, and organizational socialization, etc. Though it's an intangible theory of multifacets, organizational behaviour does play an immeasurable role geared to our needs in many fields. However, how does the writer understand organizational behaviour? Behind this question lies sorts of sophisticated tracking-down of this fascinating miracle of organizational behaviour. Organizational bahaviour is extremely important to our life and work. It has a great influence on them, but it is very hard to understand as well. The writer here wants to develop five points as he has understood. They are group or team roles and leadership, social responsibility, motivation, personality within the organizational behaviour territory. Team Roles and Leadership Team roles and leadership are related to each other and linked by collective goals. What do these concepts mean? Let's go to Huczynski and Buchanan(2001:890, 882) for their definitions respectively:
Outline and evaluate explanations of institutional aggression.
Nirali Jethwa Outline and evaluate explanations of institutional aggression. Aggression refers to angry or threatening behaviour that is intended to cause harm or pain psychologically or physically. Institutional aggression occurs within or between groups or institutions such as the armed forces, in prisons, hospitals or schools, or in social groups for example the Nazi's. Institutional aggression can occur within an institution. This can been seen by statistics showing over 84,000 violent or abusive incidents against staff in the NHS. Irwin and Cressey suggested the importation model which claims prisoners bring their own history and traits with them into prison. They argue that prisoners are not blank-slates when they enter the prison. This model takes into account interpersonal factors that effect the behaviour of inmates towards each other and staff. Another model is the deprivation model that tries to explain aggression in institutions. This model takes into account situational factors. It states that prisoner/patient aggression stems from the stressful and oppressive conditions of the institution, for example crowding which assumes will increase the fear and frustration levels. Staff experience also has shown to play a role in aggression. Davies and Burgesss proved the more experienced officers are less likely to suffer assault. This may be because they learn to deal
Outline and evaluate two explanations relating to the breakdown of relationships
Outline and evaluate two explanations relating to the breakdown of relationships Duck's model of relationship breakdown describes the breakdown of romantic relationships in a series of phases. The first phase is the intrapsychic phase, which involves the realisation of negative aspects about one's partner. If the negative aspects are not resolved, the couple will enter the dyadic phase, in which the problems that one partner is experiencing are brought to the attention of the other partner, with resolution attempts following. If such resolution attempts fail, the couple will enter the social phase, in which the relationship is doomed to end, and partners think of face-saving accounts of why the relationship will end. Finally, the partners enter the grave-dressing phase, in which the relationship has ended, and both partners communicate a socially acceptable account of what happened. This model of relationship breakdown has been widely criticised for being unidirectional, implying that if the smallest of problems arises, a couple is doomed to separate. An improvement therefore may be Lee's model, which in five stages covers much of the same ground as Duck's model, but also incorporates negotiations and resolution attempts before the termination of the relationship. Some have proposed that a combination of the two models into a seven or eight-stage model would better describe
Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression
Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression Aggression can be defined in many different ways. Bandura suggests that it is the intent to cause harm to another human being who is motivated to avoid such treatment. It can manifest itself in many different ways; these include in sport, for example, a dangerous tackle from behind in football, in the workplace, school or in other public sections such as nightclubs. In fact it has been found that alcohol, noise, crowded spaces and temperature are all influences over aggressive behaviour. For example, Baron and Bell found that aggressive behaviour increased as the temperature increased, meaning that the hotter it gets, the more aggressive a person will be. However, they also found that there was a drop off point. This means that if the temperature got too hot, for example at an unbearable point, then people weren't aggressive anymore. The first main theory of aggression is the Social Learning Theory. It was proposed by Bandura in 1961, and is based on the idea that people copy aggressive behaviour from others. Bandura stated that people learn the form, frequency and suitable targets for aggression through social modelling or observational learning. Disinhibition is one explanation for why people learn through observational learning. This is when you see someone behaving aggressively and it reduces your