• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13

Analyse the Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors, Cultural Influences, Life-Styles, Expectations and Gender Issues and Explain How They Might Affect Learning and Development. Identify What Impact Special Educational Needs May Have On Learning and ...

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ANALYSE THE ROLE OF GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, CULTURAL INFLUENCES, LIFE-STYLES, EXPECTATIONS AND GENDER ISSUES AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY MIGHT AFFECT LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. IDENTIFY WHAT IMPACT SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS MAY HAVE ON LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT. Over the centuries many theorists, biologists, psychologists and socialists have theorized, experimented and offered explanations and approaches of their own interpretation of learning and development, based on many years of research. In addition, the argument of Nature vs. Nurture is of paramount importance to their research, findings and beliefs. Before starting to analyse what factors affect learning and development, I need to establish and define what learning and development actually mean. Questions I have to ask myself when researching this topic are as follows: * What is learning and development? * Are they interlinked? * Do they have the same/separate meaning? The answer in my own broad based opinion based on what I have read, is that the term, "Learning" is a cognitive process of acquiring new concepts and skills, in order to complete a task which in-turn increase's knowledge and understanding of the subject area to be learnt. In addition, individuals will be able to build on past experiences to identify how a situation could be improved, and then with this knowledge make actual improvements. Furthermore, learning is influenced from the environment in which we find ourselves, which reflects greatly in our behaviour. Moreover, it is continuum throughout the human life-span. In comparison the term, "Development" refers to the biological process by which a human organism grows and functions through its life-span. Development can be monitored by physical growth, and a marked change in performance which is usually associated with progression of increasing knowledge and skills. ...read more.

Middle

Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development. (Appendix 1 refers) Many theorists have produced ages with stages of development in relation to their theories, and ideas on learning and development. However, it has to emphasised when we are dealing with children on a day to day basis we need to be able to refer to the normative stages of development, which have been researched throughout the world and show what most children can do, at a certain age. These stages are invaluable when dealing with factors which might affect learning and development, because academic attainment is the starting point for looking for children who may have special educational needs. Referring to the normative stages of development and "Benchmarking" will help professionals monitor a child, if they feel they are not progressing and learning at the same rate as their peers. However, the developmental norms can help us decide whether a child is delayed or impaired, but it must be noted that the, "Norms" do not accurately reflect all racial cultural differences, they may even cause concern to parents if their child is not attaining to the level that the, "Norms" say they should. At this stage it should be explained to parents that, they are only a guide and children develop at their own pace. It is fair to say that there are many conditions that can lead to learning and developmental difficulties in children, which in some children the causes can never be established. Moreover, research has identified over the years a variety of factors which are attributed to influencing learning and development, these include the following: FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT Having identified the factors which may affect learning and development, I will now discuss them in-turn. ...read more.

Conclusion

Furthermore, books and games should be avoided, which demonstrate gender stereotyping. Special Educational Needs: The range of special educational needs, (SEN) is vast and the starting point for looking if a child may have a learning difficulty can be seen through their level of academic attainment. Learning difficulties can be described as moderate, severe or profound and multiple. They can range from a mild hearing impairment, to a severe impairment, for example, Cerebral palsy. This condition affects the part of the brain that controls movement. This may cause disability of all four limbs. Children with this condition may have motor problems, visual and hearing impairments, in addition to speech and perceptual difficulties. Dyspraxia is referred to as, "Clumsy child Syndrome" in this condition the child has difficulty with physical movement, language development may be delayed. In addition learning difficulties can occur where fine or gross motor skills are needed. Dyslexia is a condition where the child has difficulty with words and learning to read, spell and write. This could cause the child to have low self- esteem and become frustrated, or even disruptive. These examples are just a few of the conditions that may have an impact on a child's ability to learn and develop to their full potential. It is just as important recognising the child has SEN, as to meeting their needs to help them achieve. Communication is of paramount importance, in addition to remembering to put the needs of the child first and then the disability. In conclusion it can be shown that a child's learning and development can be affected by many factors, throughout the human life-span. This is why it is imperative that these factors are highlighted to early year's professionals, so they can recognise and act upon them in the child's best interests, to promote their well being and education. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Discuss explanations of the development of gender identity and / or gender roles

    4 star(s)

    Martin and Halverson (1981) suggested that children when children have basic gender identity, they look at the environment around them in order to build on their gender schema. Martin suggested that once children know what sex they are, they know their group as in the 'ingroup', and the other sex as the 'outgroup', developing different schemas for each.

  2. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    I personally believed that I built up trust with the pupils because they listened to my instructions and followed them as if I was completely right in what I was telling them, although at times im sure I did not give them the best method of sticking!

  1. Autism & Learning Difficulties.

    It is the great work by Kanner that lead to the development of autism being studied and being socially more acceptable than it was previously. Work, which followed Kanner, including work by Asperger in 1944 and later by Wing and Gould in 1977, has now lead to a whole range of types of autism a child can have.

  2. write a holistic and analytical account concerning one aspect of care in a chosen ...

    upsetting and has an impact on the person's or other people's quality of life," such as the behaviours identified by Henry's carers. Before using further assessment tools it was suggested by the community nurse that Henry received a health check to eliminate any possible contributions to his behaviour.

  1. Using studies from the list below, answer the questions which follow: Rosenhan (sane in ...

    Freud believed that the findings from the case study of Little Hans supported his theories of child development. In particular, the case study provided support for his theory of the Oedipus Complex in which the young boy develops an intense sexual love for his mother and because of this, he

  2. For this assignment I have decided to look at the disorder known as ADHD ...

    Need this be the case? As Weeks and Laver-Bradbury (1997) point out "the vicious cycle of pre-school behaviour problems, school failure and adolescent and adult social malfunction needs to be tackled early", nurses are in prime position to help achieve this if given the skills and resources to do so.

  1. "Outline how our environment plays a role in causing children to kill?"

    violent with their girlfriends, and even girls fighting screaming "I'm going to beat the s**t out of you b***h". This aggressive and violent behaviour would probably not occur without the effects of drugs or alcohol because these adolescents would be in the right state of mind to think about committing an immoral act.

  2. Psychology Controversy essay, Nature Vs Nurture PY4

    r e a d y   s u f f e r s   f r o m   i t .   H o w e v e r ,   i f   a   n o n - i d e n t i c a l

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work