Alice in Wonderland
Alice in Wonderland Did you read and enjoy Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland books as a child? Or better still, did you have someone read them to you? Perhaps you discovered them as an adult or, forbid the thought, maybe you haven't discovered them at all! Those who have journeyed Through the Looking Glass generally love (or shun) the tales for their unparalleled sense of nonsense. Public interest in the books--from the time they were published more than a century ago--has almost been matched by curiosity about their author. Many readers are surprised to learn that the Mad Hatter, the Cheshire Cat and a host of other absurd and captivating creatures sprung from the mind of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, a shy, stammering Oxford mathematics professor. Dodgson was a deacon in his church, an inventor, and a noted children's photographer. Wonderland, and thus the seeds of his unanticipated success as a writer, appeared quite casually one day as he spun an impromptu tale to amuse the daughters of a colleague during a picnic. One of these girls was Alice Liddell, who insisted that he write the story down for her, and who served as the model for the heroine. Dodgson eventually sought to publish the first book on the advice of friends who had read and loved the little handwritten manuscript he had given to Alice Liddell. He expanded the story considerably and engaged the services of
Describe the effects of the Blitz on everyday life in Britain.
Describe the effects of the Blitz on everyday life in Britain The Blitz was a devastating and horrifying event in history, which began in September 1940 and lasted until November. During the Blitz, everyday life in Britain was radically influenced due to the many restrictions and disruption that were imposed upon it. Blackouts were a major part of these disruptions, as when lights were out, streetlights off, and car headlights off, nothing could be seen. This caused many accidents and deaths for motorists and pedestrians, and by the end of 1939 more that 1500 people had died due accidents during the blackouts. After government, officials had seen these figures they decided to let motorists have dimmed lights on the front of their vehicles, and civilians could use dimmed torches to find their way during blackouts. In addition, kerbs, roadsides and causeways were painted black and white, so they could be seen more easily with dimmed lights. One very disturbing aspect of blackout was that whilst people were away from there homes and the streets were darkened, opportunistic burglaries took place, and people returned home to find their homes ransacked and valuables stolen. This type of activity widened the gap between the upper and lower classes, as it was the rich that were able to leave the cities for safer areas, whilst the poor had to remain to face the terror of bombing
Describe and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression.
Psychology (essay) Describe and evaluate one social psychological theory of aggression. One of the most influential approaches to aggression is the social learning theory approach, put forward by Albert Bandura. According to this approach, most behaviour including aggressive behaviour is learned. Albert Bandura believed that aggression is learned through a process called behaviour modelling. He argued that individuals, especially children learn aggressive responses from observing others, either personality or through the media and environment. He stated that many individuals believed that aggression will produce reinforcements. These reinforcements can formulate into reduction of tension, gaining financial rewards, or gaining the praise of others. Bandura carried out a study on aggressive behaviour towards the Bobo doll. In the first stage of the study, children who had observed an adult model attack a Bobo doll were divided into three groups. Group 1 went straight into the playroom, Group 2 saw the model being rewarded for their aggression against the doll, while group 3 saw the adult model punished. In the second stage of the study, after the children had played with the doll, all the children were offered rewards to behave as the adult model had done. The results showed, in the first stage of the, group 3 children showed significantly less aggressive behaviour
Human Growth and Development
Assignment 4.1 Human Growth & Development This assignment requires me to research the main psychological factors that have an affect upon human growth and development, I shall identify the primary social factors that influence psychological and social development then apply them to myself; discussing how these factors may impact upon the individual and within a counselling setting. I will also deliver to my peers a presentation on Daniel N. Stern and his work relating to human growth and development (see appendix), discuss my research of his theory within this assignment then comment on the work of additional theorists. Daniel N. Stern Professor Daniel N. Stern is one of the world's leading scientist in the field of infant psychology along side, Bowlby, and Winnicotte. Stern developed detailed models of how infants as young as a few weeks of age begin to develop and retain a representation of the mother-child interactions which they are experiencing. He demonstrated that the infant could bring to the mother-child interaction an influence of its own, and that the very young infant's inherent or genetically given characteristics, reflected largely in its patterns of affective sign and degree of motor activity and non-verbal communication, these were factors in later behaviour that could be characterized as secure or insecure. Stern's studies also showed that the
Leaving Home On the surface it was just like any other hot August day in Nashville, but for me it was a day with mercurial-like emotions ranging from the high of the excitement about my son's departure, to a mid-level of nostalgia and memories, and finally to a low of sadness and emptiness. My first born, my son, having reached 18 years of age was leaving home. He was going to college. This particular morning Todd was very much on my mind as I arose early to help him get packed and ready to go. I was not expecting this to be an overly emotional day, yet the memories overwhelmed me. I remembered the first day his mother and I dropped him off at kindergarten and how we too felt strange and overly concerned and sad; I remembered his Bar Mitzvah when he stood before his family, friends, and community at the tender age of thirteen and recited with perfection his portion of our Holy Scripture, thereby entering Jewish adulthood. Then too, I noted a lump in my throat and a tug at my heart. I remembered the times we spent alone and the times we shared with the rest of the family, and I was very proud of him. Todd was my quiet, gentle, sensitive, skeptical, shy, and intelligent, computer wizard son. He had survived his mother's departure from our lives when he was ten years old, and despite his shyness and lack of athletic prowess, survived the rigors of adolescence. I knew it
Report on Preliminary School Experience.
Report on Preliminary School Experience. I undertook my preliminary school experience in the Spring Bank Primary School, Headingley, Leeds. Sprig Bank Primary has 198 pupils on roll. Children in this school come from different cultural and ethnical backgrounds, 30 per cent of children speak English as additional language, and 15 per cent of children are entitled to free school meals. Children are taught in mixed abilities age groups. During the first week of my preliminary school experience I mostly observed children in Year 2, while helping the teacher with the range of activities including working with small groups during Literacy and Numeracy hours as well as helping during other subject lessons. The second week I mostly spend observing teaching and learning process in Year 6, while working with a pupil with mild learning difficulties. This arrangement gave me an opportunity to observe a progression in teaching the National Curriculum not only within one year group but also within different age groups and different Key Stages. Year 2 and Year 6 groups were particularly interesting as they are going to take National Tests for Key Stage 1 and 2 at the end of the academic year. My main teaching subject is mathematics and I was particularly interested in the National Curriculum for mathematics. The school follows the National Numeracy Strategy and the Framework for
Personality Trait theories.
PERSONALITY TRAIT THEORIES Introduction Trait theories are concerned with what personality is made of, whereby Psychoanalytic theories deal with how personality develops. Human beings display an almost unlimited variety of personalities. Yet perhaps each is simply a combination of a few primary personality traits. Ascertaining what these primary characteristics are is a key objective of trait theory. A trait is defined as "any relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another" (Guilford, 1959). This explanation highlights three assumptions underlying trait theory. * First of all, personality traits are comparatively constant over time. For instance when James Conley (1985) compared the personality traits of several hundred adults at three different times in their lives, he revealed that extraversion, neuroticism and impulse control hardly changed over a forty-five-year period. * The second assumption is that personality traits are consistent over situations. A person who is dominant at work is likely to be dominant at home and other surroundings. Trait theories presume that, on average, people will act in the same way in various situations. This view has been supported by research, (Epstein, 1983). For example, Nancy Cantor and her colleagues (1985) found that college freshmen used consistent strategies to pursue various aims as getting good
Personal Development. INTRODUCTION: On starting this module I was quite looking forward to undertaking it. There seemed to be a number of issues that appealed and as it has a personal perspective to it the appeal was greater. During this assignment I hope to be objective in my findings and evaluate my discovery on personal development within the three perspectives. I also like to understand the impact on the different perspective and how the influence both personal an professional growth. . Apply the three theoretical perspectives in relation to personal development. Psychodynamic: Freud is the founder of psychotherapy, treatments such as free assocuation and analysis of the id, ego and superego were the way to deal with the consciousn/ uncocious psyche. Howerver current practitioners continue to use Freuds approaches albeit with more supportive techniques. It is now understood that psychotherapy is more effective when it leads to incresed self-knowledge and awareness. Other maintain object relations are more suited to change habitual practices. In terms of the three theoretical perspective on my own personal development, I have identified the following in Psychodynamic: Altruism: I have on many occassions put aside my own emotional needs by meeting to the extream the needs of others, more times than often meeting their needs FIRST. Avoidance: I have openly
Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment
Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment (18 marks) Attachment is a strong, emotional, reciprocal bond between two people, especially child and carer. Attachment serves three main purposes these are that it is essential for; a child's survival, a child's emotional stability throughout his/her life and the stability of a child's future relationships One explanation of attachment is the learning theory. This theory explains that an attachment is something that is learnt (nurture). Behaviourists came up with the theory that attachment is either learnt through classical conditioning or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning through association; food is an unconditioned stimulus and provides pleasure, which is an unconditioned response. The individual who feeds the infant is a conditioned stimulus and this individual becomes associated with pleasure, which is a conditioned response. When this association is made an attachment bond is formed between infant and 'feeder'. Operant conditioning is learnt when we are rewarded for doing something. Every time you do something and the result is pleasurable the behaviour is reinforced (repeated). On the other hand every time you do something and the result is not pleasurable it is less likely that the behaviour will be reinforced. Learning theory assumes that an infant will be attached to the person
Outline and Evaluate the Learning Theory of Attachment
According to learning theory, infants learn to form a single attachment to their primary caregiver through classical conditioning and operant conditioning (Dollard and Miller 1950). Classical conditioning is when the infant learns that the feeder (neutral stimulus, usually the mother) usually comes with being fed (unconditioned stimulus), and therefore associates the mother with the pleasurable feeling of being fed (unconditioned response). When the attachment has been learned, the infant feels pleasure when the mother is present. The mother is now the conditioned stimulus and the pleasure in the presence of the mother is the unconditioned response. Operant conditioning is when the infant learns that certain behaviours (like crying when hungry) bring desirable responses from the mother that relieve them from the uncomfortable state (like attention, comfort, and feeding). Over time the infant associates the pleasure of relieving the hunger with crying (negative reinforcement) and so the infant has learned to cry to get the mother’s attention and feels pleasure when the mother is present. The mother also learns through operant conditioning that she can relieve the crying sound of the infant by comforting him, this is also negative reinforcement. The term secondary drive hypothesis is used to describe the process of learning an attachment through operant and classical