• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Compare and contrast idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of Personality.

Extracts from this document...


Metropolitan University Module Title: Personality and Social Psychology Module Code: PY1003C Compare and contrast idiographic and nomothetic approaches to the study of Personality. Michaela Strasikova Student number: 05048325 Number of words: 1021 The concept of personality is needed in psychology. There are many definitions and expressions of personality. Allport, 1961 identified it as: 'Personality is the dynamic organization, within the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person's characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feeling'. Prince, 1924 described personality as 'the sum of all the biological innate disposition, impulses, tendencies, appetites and instinct of the individual and the acquired dispositions and tendencies - acquired by experience'. Funder, 2004 understood this concept as follows: 'Personality refers to and individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion and behaviour together with the psychological mechanism - hidden or not - behind those patterns.' Nowadays, we can find two kinds of psychology concerned with personality, which are clinical psychology and academic psychology. Both of them have a crucial value for understanding of personality. Clinical psychology is concentrated on the issues that a person as an individual faces when he or she is not able to deal with the problems and sorrows of daily life. ...read more.


The findings are not applicable to the non-clinical population. The measurement of the nomothetic approach is more valid, precise and reliable. The findings are more objective than in idiographic methods and it is possible to use them in a new study. The aim of this theory is to find what is normal in a group of people. The methods are possibly applicable to all people. The investigation is not depth, but very superficial. It is not really possible to define the unconscious processes. We are aware of 6 paradigms that guide personality research. These are: 1.) Psychodynamic theories - a presumption that an individual's personality is motivated by unconscious emotions, which occurred already in childhood and these are commonly unpleasant and negative. Psychodynamic theories use the idiographic methods. The representatives of those theories are Sigmund Freud, Jung, Adler, Anna Freud and Erikson. 2.) Humanistic theories - study how the positive and healthy personality can reach self-actualisation and individual happiness. A case study approach is used in this research method. The main theories are Maslow, Rogers and Kelly. 3.) Trait theories - inform how the combination of personality characteristics, which are called traits, can affect the behaviour of people. ...read more.


These are clinical studies that record an abnormal personality. The second method is case studies, which research the individual. Another method such as self report and questionnaires are directed towards the general population. Observation and twin and adoption studies also help us to develop and further research personality theories. A variety of techniques have been used to explore the idiographic approach. For instance, the respondents are asked to provide 20 answers to the question 'who are you?' (Bugental and Zelen, 1950) or to complete the expression such as 'I am ...' or 'The person I would like to be ...' (Smith, 1992). The typical example of the measure method of nomothetic approach is a questionnaire, which researches who is more anxious and who is less anxious and the consequences of anxiety in the influence of life satisfaction and career choice. The aim of this work is not to find out if the idiographic approach is better or worse than with the nomothetic approach. They are just used within different purposes. So put simply, the idiographic approach points out that every single person has got a unique psychological structure and that some characterictics are possessed by only one person. In contrast, the nomothetic approach emphasizes a person such as sets of dimensions that have the psychological meaning in everyone. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

The essay is rather disjointed with a lack of structure. Although the writer has covered the different types of therapies there is no clear connection between what is written and the essay title. It would be advisable to start with some clear definitions of what idiographic and nomothetic approaches mean. Then the writer could go on to explain in more detail how research is carried out with regard these approaches. Theories on personality need to be discussed in relation to all the above to answer the essay title. This would improve the flow of the essay.

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 29/03/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Behavioural Study of Obedience - Stanley Milgram

    5 star(s)

    Later in the experiment the subjects were to be told by the experimenter the exact opposite "You have no choice, you must go on". This conflicts with ethical guidelines; subjects have the right to withdraw from any experiment without censure at anytime.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast the main approaches - Biological and Behaviourist, biological and cognitive, ...

    4 star(s)

    [12 Marks] There are many similarities and differences between the Biological and Behaviourist approaches. The first difference is that the biological approach focuses on nature whilst the behaviourist approach focuses on nurture. The behaviourist approach says that our behaviour is moulded by society which is a nurture belief.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate Psychodynamic, Behaviourist and Humanist Theory of Psychology

    4 star(s)

    strengthens the link between stimulus and behavioural response. Skinner (1904-1990) developed radical behaviourism. Skinner concerned himself only with scientific methods and only observable behaviour. Skinner believed that all behaviour is learnt from environmental consequences or operant conditioning. Skinner went on to assert that behaviour is more or less likely depending on the consequences as a result of that behaviour (reward/punishment).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast two psychological approaches

    4 star(s)

    Pavlov decided to expand on this knowledge by training a dog to see a bell as a Stimulus. Later the behaviourist approach was taken up by B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) who worked out the evolution of human behaviour by observing the behaviour of rats in a maze, where certain actions lead to different consequences.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast Any Two Theories of Personality

    3 star(s)

    Thus the id is satisfied realistically and morally. However, it has been claimed that the psychodynamic theory 'plunges to deep' into the unconscious (Allport 1967). Freud believed personality is developed during early childhood experiences, however recent outlooks contradict Freud's view that development only takes place during childhood, it is now considered development occurs throughout life, therefore Freud's...

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the five main perspectives in psychology

    3 star(s)

    Their scientific approach also inclines them to explain human behaviour in a reductionist manner, by breaking complex processes down into more fundamental biological ones. The next major trend in psychology is behaviourism. It went further in its rejection of the special nature of mental events, denying that unobservable and unverifiable mental events were properly the subject matter of psychology.

  1. Outline and Evaluate the Biological, Psychodynamic and Cognitive Explanations of Abnormality

    It is believed that by removing the brain tissue that is causing the psychological abnormality the symptoms and problems will disappear and will not reoccur. Although medical professionals do not understand why electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) works it has been seen to have a high rate of success in treating psychiatric patients.

  2. Level 2 Counselling skills. Theories -CBT, Psychodynamic and Person Centred.

    Previously unexpressed anger about the loss is directed inwards, towards the self, causing depression. There are key developmental stages in early childhood. Fixation on any one of these stages may have a lasting effect on the individual?s personality. Freud thought Childhood influences in the first few years of our lives, were crucial to our future development.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work