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Contribution and cultural conditions that gave rise to the biological perspective.

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Introduction

THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CONTEXTS 1.Contribution and cultural conditions that gave rise to the biological perspective SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES ABOUT BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES -Dualism : the view first attributed to Descarte's, because the mind is separate from the body : definition-mind and body are 2 different things -1745 :Julien de La Mettrie came with one crucial insight almost accidentaly. He got a fever and found out thathis physical condition affected his mental state as well as his physical state - therefore he came with the conclusion that physical state affects mental state - French doctor Paul Broca (1861) encountered a case in which a man lost the ability to speak coherently after a head injury -from this he came with the term Localisation of function, which means the belief that specific parts of the brain are responsible for specific psychological processes CULTURAL VARIATION IN THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The biological approach is scientific (grounded in hard scienceof biology with its objective, materialistic subject matter and experimental methodology), deterministic (it follows casual laws) and reductionist (something complicated can be explained in simple way). The culture which will not like this would be unlikely to accept the biological approach. 2.Contribution of the biological perspective to the scientific study of behaviour, and its current standing BIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF BEHVIOUR -emotion is love, anger, fear etc. -the cause of emotion is physical -Schachter and Singer (1962) came with the theory Cognitive labelling In the experiment done by Schachter and Singer in 1962, which is called Cognitive labelling, there is need of arousal and labelling to get emotion. If we are aroused, we will attempt to label it in some way. Emotion occurs when we label our arousal in a particular way. They have done an experiment. They had three groups of people. Each group had different independent variable (IV;variable that you as an experimenter want to change). ...read more.

Middle

One example is Prozac. And other way how to change the behaviour is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It involves applying an electric shock approximately about 100 volts to one side of the brain or both sides to induce a seizure. When the patient recovers, they remember nothing from the treatment but report a relief of symptoms. It is repeated 6 times over 3-4 weeks usually. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES, SUCH AS EMOTION First of all we should explain what is emotion. Emotion is love, anger, fear etc. In the 1884/1885 there was James-Lange theory fo emotion. This theory was counter intuitive. It means that it goes against our common sense idea of emotion. Their ideas was that the perception of an emotion-arousing stimulus (for instance-a hungry bear) leads to a behavioural response, probably running away. This response involves changes and interpretates them as the emotion of fear. In the classic phrase we do not run because we are scared, but we are scared because we run. Perception of stimulus ==> behavioural response ==> change ==> experience in physiology of emotion Problems with this theory are that: -physiological changes tak� place slowly-emotions appear to be instantaneous -there should be different levels of arousal for different emotions-this is no the case -if emotion is caused simply by levels of adrenaline, then we should be able to create emotions by giving people adrenaline Perhaps what is needed for emotio is a certain level of arousal and some kind of interpretation of the arousal. METHODOLOGIES 1.Methods CORRELATIONAL STUDIES -it is a method of analysing data to establish a relationship between variables -example of correlational study is Loehlin and his correlational study of Monozygotic twins (MZ). MZ twins reared separately and together. Loehlin compared the personalities of MZ twins reared apart with those reared together. The results are that MZ reared together were 51% Extraversion and 46% Neuroticism.And MZ reared apart were 38% Extraversion and 38% Neuroticism. ...read more.

Conclusion

Delgado stimulated the "aggression" centres of monkeys by remote control. The aggression was not random, but depended on their position in the hierarchy. But there are mayn problems because it ignores the interconnectedness of the brain's functions. And it is unethical (because as a human you were born to be allow to be aggressive). 2.Recommendations for change in lifestyles CONTRIBUTION OF THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE TO CHANGES IN EDUCATION, WORK OR THERAPY If all that is psychological is first physiological, then to change behaviour we must change/influence physiology. There are three main ways how to do this. One of them is use of psychoactive drugs. Which we divide into three types. Stimulants, Depressant and lastly anti depressant. Pychoactive drug is any chemical agent and has noticeable effect on behaviour. Firstly, the stimulants. Stimulants increases activation of the Central Nervous Syst�m (CNS) and the autonomic nervous syst�m by increasing levels of dopamine (functions-motor activity, coordiantion, emotion and memory). There is increase of heart rate, breathing awarness etc. Stimulants are mainly found in coffeine, nicotine and amphetamines. Than we have depressants., which decrease CNS activity by enhancing the effects of the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) and function of GABA are anxiety, arousel, learning etc. Depressants are mainly found in alcohol and valium. And lastly, there are anti-depressants. This drug is used to treat clinical depression. A new class of anti depressants has been developed, which is called SSRI's (selective serotonin receptake inhibitors). One example is Prozac. And other way how to change the behaviour is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It involves applying an electric shock approximately about 100 volts to one side of the brain or both sides to induce a seizure. When the patient recovers, they remember nothing from the treatment but report a relief of symptoms. It is repeated 6 times over 3-4 weeks usually. Originally applied to schizoprenics. And lastly psychosurgery.It is prefrontal lobotomy involved severing the connection between the frontal lobes of the brain and the deeper underlying structures in the hope of producing calm and rational behaviour. ...read more.

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