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DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PSYCHODYNAMIC AND SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACHES TO THE EXPLANATION OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT What is personality development? "Psychologists define personality in many ways, but common to all of the ways are two basic concepts, uniqueness and characteristic patterns of behaviour. We will define personality as the complex set of unique psychological qualities that influence an individuals characteristic patterns of behaviour across different situations and over time." (Psychology In Life, Phillip .G. Zimbardo, page 509) The psychodynamic approach: " Psychodynamic refers to any approach that emphasises the process of change and development, and moreover any theory that deals with the dynamics of behaviour (the things that drive us to behave in particular ways). " The psychodynamic approach focuses on the role of internal processes (such as motivation) and of past experience shaping personality." (PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 LEVEL, MICHAEL W. EYSENCK, page 475) Sigmund Freud developed a theory to explain psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theory he was the founder and practised as a psychotherapist and much of his work comes from self-analysis. Freud's work suggests that early experiences determine adult personality; he identified five stages within the first five years of life. ...read more.


" Freud founded developmental psychology, proposed one of the first systematic theories of personality, and devised a form of therapy that was unsurpassed for over 80 years. Psychoanalysis has been widely used and adapted, though it tends to be suitable only for literate and wealthy people because of the time and expense involved. (PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 LEVEL, MICHAEL W. EYSENCK, Page 766) The social learning developmental theory argues that personality is learnt through interactions with the environment. "Psychologists with a learning theory orientation, however, have quite a different focus. They look for environmental contingencies - reinforcing circumstances that control behaviour. From this perspective behaviour and personality are shaped primarily by the outside environment." (Psychology In Life, Phillip .G. Zimbardo, page 527) Alfred Bandura used an observation learning theory, he emphasised the role of observation and modelling. Bandura believed that children would more likely imitate the behaviour of people who are warm and loving towards them, competent and powerful and most similar to themselves. He believed reinforcements or rewards may be used or expressed as enjoyment, pride and satisfaction from the child. ...read more.


Learning is influenced by self-regulation (reciprocal determinism) insofar as the learner very much contributes to the learning process. Learning is also affected by the way you feel about yourself (self-concept or self-efficacy). (PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 LEVEL, MICHAEL W. EYSENCK, Page 425) "One mighty think that social learning theory, like traditional learning theory, is a determinist account of behaviour. Learning theory suggests that we are shaped by external factors and this leads us to behave in predictable ways. However, Bandura stressed that social learning theory does not represent the individual as a helpless victim of circumstance. Nor did Bandura subscribe to the idea that one can somehow add up internal and external factors and thus explain personality. Bandura felt this was an oversimplification and that it was the interaction that was all important." (PSYCHOLOGY FOR A2 LEVEL, MICHAEL W. EYSENCK, Page 425) In closing I would just like to say, that I believe a persons personality is a uniqueness and that each one of us has to look into the depths of our own soul to get to know our selves. Like a person, "A poem records emotions and moods that lie beyond normal language, that can only be patched together and hinted at metaphorically." (Ackerman, Diane. 1948 American Poet Writer Naturalist.) (www.borntomotivate.com) By Joanne Reid ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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