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Genetic and environmental factors affecting intelligence

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Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Genetic and environmental factors in intelligence test performance AO1: The genetic approach to explaining performance on intelligence tests has controversially claimed that intelligence may be passed from one generation to another. The main source of evidence for this area has been twin studies which compare the concordance rates for IQ scores for Mz and DZ twins. Another area of research has been looking at family relatedness and concordance rates on intelligence tests. MZ twins are identical twins and have the same genetics as each other so if intelligence was genetic both twins should have similar IQ scores. It is unlikely to be just one that influences intelligence, it is likely to be a group. The first to be identified was IGF2 receptor gene. The second gene was ASPM linked to higher intelligence by effecting the size of the cerebral cortex by expanding it suggesting the larger the size of the cerebral cortex, the greater the processing of information. APOE gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease, researchers said that there was a variant of it which some have found to have links to intelligence. ...read more.

Middle

This strongly suggests that IQ test performance has a strong genetic influence Buchard & McCue also conducted a meta analysis of the separation studies and found the results to be accurate at 0.72 correlation. AO3: Meta analysis studies are potentially very valuable sources of evidence for genetics in intelligence because if a finding is consistent across many studies it suggests that it's true. Because it's unlikely to be a fluke. ________________ [Environmental Factors] AO1: Attention from the family, if they're second or third born they get less attention, therefore, academic IQ development would be less than the older siblings. Peer group if their friends are intellectually superior they would be able to Quality of education can affect how well the receive the information, because if the class sizes are larger the amount they would take in would be less size of class. Daycare in the early years develops their intellect which could lead to superior intellect. Nutrition - eating the right things such as protein can help further development and allows the Brian to grow lager. Vitamins and minerals. ...read more.

Conclusion

________________ AO2: Another piece of evidence which suggests environment effects intelligence test scores is nutrition Oddy (2004) found that babies that were breast fed for more than 6 months had better verbal intelligence at 8 than babies breast fed for less than six months in a landmark study. Another study which shows that prenatal facts which can affect Prenatal factors was conducted by Mortensen (2005) for instance found that children and mothers who smoked more than 20 cigarets a day during pregnancy did badly on IQ at ages 18 to 19. Can lead to foetals alcohol syndrome in this the baby has low birth rate weight and often suffers mild brain damage and reducing IQ. AO3: One major issue with research relating to a rich learning environment is that people with a genetic intelligence may actually create an ideal environment around themselves which can develop their intelligence and so appear to show that the environment is causing intelligence when in actual fact it's the genes that are shaping the environment. For example, in schools if you appear to be intelligent, teacher will treat you differently in giving you harder assignments to complete this makes it appear that the environment is making the child more intelligent but it's the child's intelligence which is shaping the environment. ...read more.

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