The magazine article, 'School demands cause sleep-deprived teens' comprehensively addresses the harmful adolescent health issue of sleep deprivation. The main concepts of this issue outlined in relation to Australian teenagers are -
Edward Chan 10C 10/4/06 James Ruse Agricultural High School - Year 10 PD/H/PE Assignment Adolescent Health Issues Article: 'School demands cause sleep-deprived teens' (Choice Health Reader, December 2005) Part A: Give a brief account of the major points the writer is raising. The magazine article, 'School demands cause sleep-deprived teens' comprehensively addresses the harmful adolescent health issue of sleep deprivation. The main concepts of this issue outlined in relation to Australian teenagers are - * Research has shown that adolescents are the most sleep-deprived group in society today. * Teenagers from 13 to 18 years of age require an average 9 hours 15 minutes of sleep every night for physical and psychological refreshment. * Study has shown, however, that 26% of teenage students reported having only 61/2 hours sleep or less. * There are two types of adolescent sleep patterns - o 'morning' types who wake early and sleep early o 'evening' types who prefer to go to bed later and sleep in until later * The majority of teenagers are 'evening' types. This is a major cause of sleep deprivation as adolescents try to keep up with their commitments leading to increasingly later bedtimes. * The average teenage student gets about 2 hours less sleep a night during school terms than the acceptable amount of 9 hours 12 minutes in the holidays. * Social
Biological Rhythms Circadian Rhythms A circadian rhythm is a biological rhythm that runs on a roughly 24 hour cycle. One example is the sleep/wake cycle. Humans sleep about 8 out of 24 hours. Even under constant light conditions, animals keep a circadian rhythm (e.g. sleeping and eating) of around 24 hours. This suggests that circadian rhythms are endogenous (internal) as they continue to run even when exogenous (external) zeitgebers are missing. However, it seems that we rely on some exogenous zeitgebers (such as light) to entrain our circadian rhythms with a 24 hour day, otherwise they may become slightly out of sync. The main endogenous pacemaker is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a tiny cluster of neurons located in the hypothalamus in the brain. It causes the pineal gland to secrete melatonin (a hormone that makes us sleepy) in response to low light conditions. However, even in constant light conditions the free-running SCN still controls melatonin secretion to a roughly 24 hour cycle. One strength of explanations of circadian rhythms is that they suggest a relationship between biology and the environment. For example, they consider how the (biological) SCN works with the exogenous zeitgeber light to control the sleep/wake cycle. As most psychologists agree that both of these factors usually play a part, a combination of the two is sensible. These
Compare and contrast biological and psychological explanations of anxiety disorders Research has often concluded that no one biological or psychological theory can provide a sufficient explanation into anxiety disorders such as depression. The diathesis stress model explains psychological anxiety disorders as an interaction between a predisposition to the disorder and environmental stress. In terms of anxiety disorders, predispositions include aspects of biological and psychological factors. Often the main problem found with psychological explanations of anxiety disorders, especially the psychodynamic theory, is that is the theories are more difficult to test. With Freud's theory, which is largely based on the working of the unconscious mind, it makes it impossible to prove or disprove. When evidence is presented it is often inconsistent, for example, Paykel (1981) reviewed studies and found that had half weren't supportive of early loss as an explanation. Freud suggested that development is driven by biological changes. Adult's characteristics are the consequences of the interaction between these and experience. Biological explanations are more scientific and easy to measure as they use three main ways of assessment. These are family studies, win studies and adoption studies. Naturally technology will evolve along with time. When analysing genetic influences, the medical
The major theme of Death of a Salesman, about all else, is about Dreams and how they are the contributing factor of each character's perception of reality
The major theme of Death of a Salesman, above all else, is about Dreams and how they are the contributing factor of each character's perception of reality. The perception of reality that each character visualizes is of there own highest aspirations in life. The theme of dreams is the most important theme of Death of a Salesman, and I will be examining and comparing this particular theme with three other themes as well. These three themes are as follows: Honesty, Time and Performance. In completing my comparison of all four of these themes, I will weigh the importance of each one against the theme of "Dreams", and as a result, come to a solid conclusion that indeed the theme of Dreams is the catalyst of the Lohman family's false perception of reality itself. In examining Death of a Salesman and a few of its most important themes, the theme of Dreams is certainly the most compelling and interesting of the four that I have selected. Each member of the Lohman family are all victims of their own false perception of reality. Their perception of reality is so out of focus that they are all blinded by their own aspirations of being something that they are not, as well as something that they cannot accomplish. This negativity towards the Lohman family is rightfully justified as a result of all three of the Lohman men's lack of ability to succeed and accomplish their very high
Extended Essay- Psychology Can a case be made for the use of homeopathy in the treatment of depression? Name: Hana Holdijk Centre number: 0528 Candidate number: 010 Abstract: This essay describes depression and the various ways that it has been treated throughout the years. Statistics show that most people who have had severe depression in their life have a 50-80% chance of it returning. The side effects of modern drugs used to treat various diseases are extremely unpleasant. Research shows depression treated with psychotherapy does not prove to be very successful. It is also very hard to assess the effectiveness of psychotherapy and many people are rarely cured from depression. Homeopathy offers a safer, viable alternative to psychotherapy and drug treatment. It has no side effects and cures on a deeper level, preventing the patient from having a relapse later on. If it works, the effect is a long term curative one. If not, the palliative effect it creates is not harmful in any way. In this essay, the basic principles and method of treatment of homeopathy are discussed to try and enlighten the reader with an alternative form of healing. Homeopathy has become increasingly popular throughout the world because of the success rate it has with patients suffering from all kinds of diseases. I was inspired to write this paper because as the daughter of two homeopaths, I am
Understand the link between psychodynamic concepts & understanding mental health issues - For example, using research linking early trauma to later mental disorder.
Understand the link between psychodynamic concepts & understanding mental health issues. For example, using research linking early trauma to later mental disorder. Alex (Lemma-Wright, 1995): * Alex organised a sea boat-trip to celebrate sister's birthday * She suffered a panic attack on boat * Alex had always loved her sister but also resented her a little, believing that her family always fond of her sister more than Alex * On 1 occasion she had become so angry with her sister for being centre of attention that Alex dragged her into the sea, frightening her. * As an adult, Alex felt she had to organise her sister's life including financial difficulties * She didn't no why she had the panic attack until several days later when she had a dream about having fight with friend (who reminded her of sister) and wished her dead * Alex realised that on the boat trip in which she had taken her sister into the sea again, stirred up guilty memories of times she had dragged her into the sea From this case of Alex we can see that long-buried childhood memories return to produce anxiety in the form of panic attacks. Evaluation: As support for this Main's (1996) study shows this. Toddlers who had failed to develop normal attachments following neglect or abuse were more likely to go on to develop mental health problems than were other children. Depression may be linked to
Psychology Revision - Practise essay plans Mock Jan 05 Option 2 - Dysfunctional Behaviour 5. (a) Describe one dysfunctional behaviour (disorder) (6 marks) Depression * Mood disorders are one of the most frequently occurring psychopathologies, within which the DSM IV distinguishes between two main categories of mood disorder; uni-polar depression and bipolar depression. * Uni-polar depression - Can present four types of symptoms - DSM IV states that either depressed mood or loss of pleasure, plus at least another 4 symptoms must be shown during the same two-week diagnosis to be made - Emotional symptoms - intense feelings of sadness or guilt, lack of enjoyment - Motivational depression - passivity and great difficulty in initiating action or making decisions - Cognitive symptoms - frequent negative thoughts, faulty attribution of blame, low self-esteem, and irrational hopelessness - Somatic symptoms - loss of energy or restlessness. Disturbance of appetite, weight and sleep. * Bipolar Depression - Involves normal symptoms of depression followed by mania or hypo mania (shorter, less severe mania). - Mania involves four symptoms - DSM IV states that a manic episode must involve a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting at least a week', plus at least 3 additional
"Psychological Research doesn't always appear to have any usefulness but this is not true of research into stress" To What Extent can psychological research provide useful forms of stress management techniques? The application of research into stress management can be divided into two categories; physiological methods and cognitive therapies. However, the usefulness of both variations of stress management techniques has been disputed by many psychologists. Biofeedback is a physiological method of stress management and is a technique employed in order to reduce the activity of the autonomic nervous system and therefore the physical manifestations of stress. The participant learns how to control involuntary or voluntary muscles that are not normally controlled, which reduces the effects of stress in terms of the illnesses associated with it. There are three stages in biofeedback. Firstly, the individual learns of their own physiological activity by way of a mechanical measure, for example a blood pressure or heart rate monitor or an EEG which looks at brain waves. Secondly, the participant is trained in strategies that research has found to reduce stress, for example relaxation training, in quiet conditions. This is so that the participant can master such strategies without additional stress. Finally, the participant will transfer this knowledge into everyday situations.
Anxiety And Pain How Have Psychological Theories Elucidated the Nature of Anxiety: With Particular Reference to Panic Disorder Everybody has had experience with anxiety. Indeed anxiety responses have been found in all species right down to the sea slug (Rapee, et al 1998). The concept of anxiety was for a long time bound up with the work of Sigmund Freud where it was more commonly known as neurosis. Freud's concept of neuroses consisted of a number of conditions characterised by irrational and disproportionate fear. Through time it became apparent that the term was a) becoming to wide a term to be of any use in explanation and b) too intimately connected to psychoanalytic theory, of which many of its basic theoretical assumptions were being increasingly called into question. As successive versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) were created the term neurosis was eventually superseded by Anxiety disorder.The current version of the Manual (DSM-IV) recognises six specific categories of anxiety: phobias, panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder. Obviously in an essay such as this it would be impossible to give an adequate account of psychological theories regarding all of these distinct anxiety categories. Instead this essay will focus in on one important diagnostic
Identify and discuss strategies for coping with Stress. Stress has been defined as a pattern of negative physiological and psychological processes occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well being which they may be unable to meet. These situations involve stimuli which can be either real or imagines and are generally known as stressors. Stressors come in many forms; for example, they can be cataclysmic such as life disasters including floods and earthquakes and also things such as rape and abuse. But they can also quite insignificant things such as being late for work or stuck in traffic - these are generally known as life's little hassles. Although stressors are mainly seen as negative, they can also some be seen in a positive light such as wining a competition or sitting an exam as these can affect people's behaviour in positive ways. Stress is a biological response that is exposed through an emotion although the form it takes can vary depending on the nature of the stressor as we respond differently in a variety of situations. When a person senses a stressor, the hypothalamus will send a signal to the autonomic nervous system and also to the pituitary gland these both respond by stimulating the bodies organs which then change their normal activities such as an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar levels, air passages also