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invesigating stroop effect

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The Stroop Effect Introduction This investigation is exploring attention and concentrating on the Stroop Effect. Attention can be defined in two ways, firstly it can be defined as 'mechanisms by which certain information is registered and other information is rejected' (Pennington 2002). Another definition of attention is 'some upper limit to the amount of processing that can be performed on incoming information at any one time' (Pennington 2002). Many Psychologists have conducted studies and experiments into (and about) attention, resulting in many different models of attention being formed. An early model of attention was Broadbent's filter model of attention (1958). His model proposed that all information goes through one channel and is then 'filtered' on the basis of gross physical characteristics, for example when a voice is male or female, deciding which information will be discarded and what information will be attended to and proceeded. Treisman (1964) went on the develop Broadbent's model, this model could not account for the process of attention given to the information from an unattended channel. 'Treisman herself went on to show that semantic information from the unattended ear would influence interpretation of a shadowed message' (Pennington 2002). Schneider and Shiffrin (1997) created a model of attention called the Automaticity Model. They came to the conclusion that attention divides into two: Controlled attention and automatic attention. Automatic processing is fast, does not require a lot of attention, and happens involuntarily. ...read more.


To avoid there being any bias results due to order effects, some of the participants could do the task with the conflicting word list first, whilst others have to do the list with the non-conflicting words first. Participants The target population for this experiment is females aged 16-18 years old at Queen Elizabeth's Girls' School. Opportunity sampling was drawn from the target population. This method was used as it was the most convenient and it means the sample selected consists of people who are available and willing members of the target population. However, there are negative points to this method as it means there was not an equal chance for everyone in the target population and therefore the results and findings cannot be generalised. Random sampling would have been the fairest method used because this type of sampling means every member of the target population has a chance of being selected, however this method is too time consuming and therefore inappropriate. The total number of participants gathered for this experiment is 18, 16-18 year old females from Queen Elizabeth's 6th form common room. Materials The materials for this experiments consisted of two word lists. There were 14 words on both lists. On one of the lists the 14 words were different colours, on the other list there were 14 objects such as HOUSE. The words were chosen so that they were suitable for different levels of participant's ability. ...read more.


Results A table to show the range and average time taken (in seconds) for participants to correctly name aloud the colour of ink in which conflicting and non-conflicting words are written. Non-conflicting meaning words (Secs) Conflicting coloured words (Secs) Mean 10.284 8.642 Range 8.39 7.10 Median 9.80 8.12 The most helpful averages to look at are the mean and media. The mean was calculated because it is a sensitive measure of central tendency as it uses all the scores. From looking at the table, it can be seen that on average, participants took less time to name the colour of the ink correctly if the meaning of the word did not conflict with colour. This is show as the mean for conflicting colour words is higher at 10.284 that non-conflicting words, 8.642. A parametric test was used to analyse the data for this study. A parametric test is used as they are powerful, sensitive and measure very accurately. The data for this study was analysed using a t test (parametric test). A related t test was conducted in order to find out whether or not the data was significant. This means, to see what the probability of the results obtained were by chance. A related t test was chosen because the type of data was interval and the design was a repeated measures design. These together mean the related t test was the most appropriate test to see whether the results were significant. ?? ?? ?? ?? An Investigation into the Stroop Effect using coloured words of a conflicting and non-conflicting natured compared to the word itself. 1 Stroop ...read more.

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