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Notes on Important Psychology Experiments and Theories.

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Introduction

Pavlov (1927) Learning ? What is Classical Conditioning Method: Children heard stories about the toys that male and female characters enjoyed playing with. Some of the characters were described as liking gender-stereotyped activities, while other characters were describes as non-gender-stereotyped activities. The children were then asked to predict what other toys each character would or would not play with. Martin (1989) Sex and Gender - Gender schema theory of gender development Conclusion: Older children have a more flexible view of gender than younger children do. Results: The younger children used only the sex of the character to decide what other toys he or she would or would not like. For example, they would say that a boy character would like to play with trucks even if they had been told that the boy liked playing with dolls. The older children, however, considered both the sex of the character and the other toys the character liked playing with. For example, they would say that a girl who liked playing with trucks would be less likely to want to play with dolls. Aim: to show that children?s understanding of gender becomes less stereotyped and therefore more flexible as they get older. He noticed that when the dog he was studying heard the food buckets being brought, it started to salivate. He knew that salivation is a reflex response; it is an automatic response that should usually occur when food is in the mouth. Pavlov set up a series of trials over the next few days. ...read more.

Middle

Results: In the first condition, the children imitated what they had seen the same-sex role model doing. The boys chose the activity the male role model had played while the girls chose the activity the female models had played with. In the second condition, there was no difference in the activities the boys and girls chose. Conclusion: when children are in an unfamiliar situation they will observe the behaviour of the same-sex role models. This gives them information about whether the activity is appropriate for their sex. If it is, the child will imitate that behaviour. Method: Hans?s father wrote to Freud to tell him about Hans?s development, at the age of four Hans developed a phobia of horses. He was frightened that a horse might bite him or fall down. He was particularly afraid of large white horses with black around their mouth. Freud analysed this information Aim: to investigate little Hans?s phobia ________________ Bandura et al. (1963) aggression ? Social learning theory Young et al. (1959) Aggression ? Biological explanation Charles Whitman, Aggression ? what is aggression? Aim: to see what effect hormones have on aggressive behaviour. Conclusion: Children will copy how they see others behave Results: the children who have witnessed the aggressive behaviour showed more aggressive behaviour than the children who had seen none. Method: researchers divided 96 children into four groups, three of which were shown someone throwing, kicking and punching the ?bobo? doll. Their own behaviour was then observed Aim: to find out if three ? to six ? year old children would imitate the aggressive behaviour ...read more.

Conclusion

The learner was an actor and the shocks weren?t real. However the participant, who played the role of the teacher, didn?t know this because of how convincing the experiment was. The participant was sat in front of a shock generator that had 30 switches marked from 30V up to 450V. The learner had to remember word pairs and the participant had to give them a shock that increased in severity with each mistake the learner made. As the shocks increased the learner groaned in pain, protest and eventually yell had to be released. This was just a recording. After doing a lot of yelling, the participant then fell silent. This made the participant want to stop, so the experimenter would give them verbal prods such as ?the experiment requires that you carry on? Conclusion: the participants used other people?s opinions to help them form a judgement in an ambiguous situation. Results: Individually the participants gave a variety of estimates, which differed quite widely from each other?s. However, after being allowed to undertake the same task in groups of three, their estimates became more similar until they were finally very close. Method: he asked participants to estimate how far a spot of light moved when they were sitting in an otherwise completely dark room. In fact the light didn?t move at all, but owing an optical illusion called the autokinetic effect it did appear to. Aim: Milgram wanted to see how far people would go to obey an unreasonable order Milgram (1963) Social Influence - Obedience Sherif (1939) Social Influence - Conformity Aim: to discover the effect on judgement of listening to other people. ...read more.

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