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Outline and Evaluate Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

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Introduction

Outline and Evaluate Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of Attachment Bowlby's theory is an evolutionary theory becuase he believes attachment is a behavioural system that has evolved because of its survival and reproductive value. Caregiving is adaptive because species have adapted over many years to enhanse survival of the offspring so they can later reproduce. Bowlby's theory is made up of many different ideas. According to Bowlby, children have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver. This is similar to that of imprinting which is an innate readiness to develop a strong bond with the mother figure which takes place during the sensitive period. ...read more.

Middle

This is similar to the continuity hypothesis and the idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and confident adults. Social releases elicit caregiving such as smiling, crying, looking cute etc. This induces monotropy, one relationship that the infant hhas with their primaryattachment figure is of special significance. Infants also have secondary attachment figures which form a hierarchy. These secondary attachment figures act as a safety net and also contribute to social development. Attachment also fosters independance rather than independance. A secure base helps this by giving a child somewhere to come home to after exploring the world. Scheffer and Emmerson showed support for Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory of Attachment by observing 60 babies. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, the multiple attachment model suggests there are no primary or secondary attachments. All attachments are integrated into one single model. This shows a weekness in Bowlby's theory of attachment becuase it states that a primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development. It also states that the secondary attachment figures which form a heirarchy also contribute to social development. The multiple attachment model removes this. Another weekness is the temperament hypothesis. This states that personalities may affect attachment. Belsky and Rovine assessed babies ages 1 - 3 days old and found that infants who were calmer and less anxious were more likely to be securely attached.This contradicts the evolutionary theory as it states that attachment affects personality and not the other way around. Natalie ...read more.

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Response to the question

This is a sound response that satisfies the demands of the questions nicely. The mark scheme would be looking for the candidate to satisfy AO1 (knowledge and understanding) and AO2 (critical evaluation) and there is evidence of both here. The ...

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Response to the question

This is a sound response that satisfies the demands of the questions nicely. The mark scheme would be looking for the candidate to satisfy AO1 (knowledge and understanding) and AO2 (critical evaluation) and there is evidence of both here. The candidate's essay structure is also very good, consulting their knowledge of Bowlby's theories to concern the "Outline" part of the question and then going on to a critical evaluation that cites empirical evidence for the support and refutation of Bowlby's theories in order to concern the "Evaluate" section. All in all the response is an organised and competent approach to tackle the question.

Level of analysis

The Level of Analysis shown here is indicative of a confident psychology student. The candidate writes fluently, using many appropriate psychological terms to fortify their answer with knowledge and precision, and makes many good references to psychological research (Scheffer & Emmerson, Harlow, Belsky & Rovine), which will help indicate to the examiner that the candidate is capable of assisting their answers with objective empirical evidence relating to the question.

The detail in the first section would be sufficient enough to assist even those not aware of Bowlby's theories to garner a fair understanding and comprehension of them, but some information is slightly erroneous and/or is subjected to poor Quality of Written Communication, leading to a misinformation of some parts of the theories, e.g. "Attachment also fosters independance rather than independance", which doesn't aid the answer in any way.

Quality of writing

The Quality of Written Communication in this answer is debatable. The candidate does not appear to have implemented a spell-check into her answer, leading to frequent typos - some minor (e.g. "becuase", hhas" "primaryattachment"); others are more detrimental to the clarity of her written expression (e.g. the aformentioned example, " This induces monotropy, one relationship that the infant hhas with their primaryattachment figure is of special significance") These are perfect examples to ensure a proof-read is conducted, as we all make writing and typing errors without realising. Failure to do this will result in low QWC marks.


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