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Outline and evaluate two approaches used in the treatment of mental disorders.

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Introduction

Outline and evaluate two approaches used in the treatment of mental disorders. The purpose of this essay is to discuss and evaluate different approaches that are used to find the cause and treat various mental disorders. There are five major approaches in Psychology, which are: The Behaviourist Approach, The Cognitive Approach, The Psychodynamic Approach, The Humanistic Approach and lastly The Biological Approach. Behaviourists believe that all behaviour is learned. The Cognitive Approach argues that abnormalities and disorders are due to faulty and irrational thinking. The Psychodynamic Approach-Freud believed that our behaviour is determined by thoughts feelings and experiences that are present in the unconscious mind. The Humanistic Approach focuses on the individual. Finally The Biological Approach looks at factors such as faulty genes and the environment to explain mental disorders. All of the five approaches view abnormalities differently, and believe there are specific causes and treatments. In this essay I will be discussing in detail two approaches as well as outlining major assumptions of these approaches and their therapies. The Behaviourist Approach explains that all behaviour is learned therefore mental disorders are learned. ...read more.

Middle

The superego which develops from eighteen months and onwards is governed by the morality principle, this is our conscience. Freud believed that our personality fully developed by the age of six. The approach suggests that if the Id is dominant and the superego is weak, psychopathy is likely to develop in adulthood, whereas if the superego is dominant, an individual is likely to develop a neurotic illness such as depression or anxiety. Sometimes the ego experiences anxiety and may use defence mechanisms to protect itself. These defence mechanisms are; Repression, where a memory is forced out of consciousness and is made unconscious. Displacement, where an emotional response is taken from its original source and used against someone else, for example; anger towards a partner being directed towards a pet. Denial when an individual refuses to accept something in reality because it is painful or distressing. Rationalisation, when one justifies their own or others actions to themselves and believes it. Identification is where an individual incorporates another person into their own personality, and starts to think/act/feel as if they were that person. Regression, one begins to behave in a way that is similar to the behaviour they engaged in as a child. ...read more.

Conclusion

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder contradicts the concept of repression; it proves that not everything traumatic is repressed. Freud only used one child in his study of 'Little Hans' yet he developed a theory of how children develop through childhood. The Biological Approach proves that some mental disorders are caused by faulty genes, using family studies of Mz and Dz twins. Treatments include drugs, Electro Convulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery. These treatments take place all over the world to date and anti-depressants such as Prosac are very popular when treating depression. The Psychodynamic Approach and Behaviourist Approach are contradicted by the Biological Approach as studies have proved that drugs and physical treatment are extremely effective and most popular rather than unlearning a disorder or bringing a memory from the unconscious to the conscious also known as Flooding and Psychoanalysis. The Cognitive Approach is similar to that of the Behaviourist and Psychodynamic Approach as it all takes place in the mind and blames the individual. The Biological Approach is the only approach that does not blame the individual. In conclusion to my essay I feel that The Behaviourist Approach and The Psychodynamic Approach both explain the causes of mental disorders differently yet realistically. Both have successful treatments and therapies and each have their own strengths and limitations. Preya Kamothi Access to (HE) Teaching-Psychology 1 ...read more.

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