• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline findings and conclusions of research into cross-cultural variations in attachment. (6 marks)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Rebecca Burns | Psychology Outline findings and conclusions of research into cross-cultural variations in attachment. (6 marks) In 1988, Van Ijzendoorn MH and Kroonenberg PM used a meta-analysis of the Strange Situation to research cross-cultural patterns of attachment. They used the same procedure as Ainsworth as this is the ?standard? way of assessing attachment as it shows how not all infants are securely attached. They therefore found the same three types of attachment: Secure (B), Resistant (C) and Avoidant (A). The Strange Situation can be used to test cross-cultural patterns because there are cultural differences in the way caregivers would bring up a child and expectations of children?s development, so many would be expected. ...read more.

Middle

The meta-analysis was the use of the Strange Situation, only mother-infant pairs and infants were classified into A, B, or C. The studies tried to eliminate any other variables that couldn?t be controlled. These included any special groups of children. These groups included those with Down?s syndrome, any children with less than 35 pairs and any children over the age of 2. The total number of samples was 32 from eight countries and represented 1990 Strange Situation classifications. The data was analyzed in 3 ways. The first was to see whether in each sample there was a pattern of distribution of children over different attachment types, the second was by the comparison of the extent of intra and inter-cultural differences in terms of overall variation and also to evaluate specific similarities and differences of the samples eg, were the proportions of A, B and C similar? ...read more.

Conclusion

This also brings the issue of unfair distribution. Intra and inter-cultural comparisons produced some interesting findings. Firstly, one of the German samples was different to another (Berlin) as this sample was from an Israeli kibbutzim sample. Secondly, the Japanese sample from Tokyo was more like one of the US samples than the other. Lastly, the Israeli city sample was more like one of the US samples than the other Israeli (kibbutzim) sample. Using all of the data, Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg found that the intra-cultural variation was nearly one and a half times the size of the inter-cultural variation. This means that there bigger differences within cultures than there were between them. In Germany and the USA, intra-cultural variation is very large, whereas between the Netherlands and Japan there is very little variation. The Japanese and Israeli samples contributed the most to cross-cultural differences. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This essay is asking for an 'outline' which is given here. However it is also asking for conclusions so it is fine to add a couple of interpretative comments too. 4*

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 20/05/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    Ainsworth's research shows that infants tend to develop secure attachments when their caregivers are compassionate, consistent, and warm. The quality of attachments was looked at by Ainsworth who is considered alongside Bowlby to be a key figure in this are of psychology.

  2. Factors that Affect Growth and Development.

    may have it taken away from them, but by waiting to be offered they will eventually get it. The third part of the unconscious mind is the superego, which develops later in childhood and is that part of our personality that gives us our conscience.

  1. Plan, implement and evaluate at least three activities for children in the foundation stage. ...

    Differentiation This activity has a great scope for differentiation. The less able children will be able to enjoy the experience of watching the water transfer from container to container, whilst the more able children may be able to record their findings.

  2. How has Bowlby's original formulation of attachment theory been modified in the light of ...

    Charlie Lewis suggests that this is nothing to do with the concept of the 'New Man' but is a result of fathers

  1. Human Growth and Development

    Klein recognised the way children played revealed infantile fantasies and anxieties which could affect the child's developing ego, superego and sexuality resulting in emotional disorders. Melanie's ideas did not always match those of Sigmund Freud which led to conflict between Klein and Freudian followers, especially his daughter Anna.

  2. Critically discuss the implications of attachment theory for different forms of childcare

    the effects of early experience can be reversed (Clarke and Clarke, 1976). The maternal deprivation hypothesis was developed in post second world wartime and Bowlby's research was based on children that were extremely traumatized, having possibly lost both parents at war.

  1. Nature VS nurture - Issues, perspectives and debates in psychology.

    Of course this is only a correlation and this relationship could be caused by another variable. Twin studies are hard to conduct because the necessary situation doesn't occur particularly frequently in the population, therefore the sample is limited and difficult to generalise.

  2. Outline and evaluate Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis.

    It is quite common now for a child's father to have an active role in their upbringing and so this is another reason why this hypothesis is not so reflective of today's society. For Bowlby, the mother-child relationship was central to the attachment process.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work