• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline three differences between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).

Extracts from this document...


Diana 12th November 2004 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY * Outline three differences between short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Duration Differences i.e. how long it lasts: - Information held in STM is lost rapidly when there is little or no opportunity to rehearse it since rehearsal would send the information into LTM and it will be easily recalled. This suggests that holding information in STM is only for a few seconds since holding information in STM is fragile and easily forgotten. Peterson and Peterson (1959) concluded this by asking participants to remember trigrams when not allowed to rehearse it. Unlike STM, information can be held in LTM for a long a long period of time and mostly forever. It is said that the elderly never forget their childhood memories. Bahrick, Bahrick and Witlinger (1975) carried out a study into LTM (where photographs of high school students were taken from the year and ex-students were asked to recall the names of the photographs. They found out that 90% of the names could still be remembered even after 34yrs. ...read more.


say what came into their minds. To make it a repeated measures experimental design, the participants experienced two conditions. Some of the words had neutral meaning e.g. tree, window...etc. and others had a high negative emotional content e.g. war, fear...etc. Part two of the study followed shortly after part one. Participant's recalls of the words were tested. The original neutral or negative emotionally charged words were presented to them as cues and they were asked to recall their associations. Findings: - Levinger and Clark found that the participants had more difficulty in producing associations to the negative emotionally charged words than to the neutral words. It also took them a longer period of time since their recall was slower. The galvanic skin response data showed that the emotionally charged words created more emotional arousal, which may have led to them, being repressed into the unconscious and this made the speed of recall slow. * Outline and evaluate one alternative model to the multi-store model of memory (e.g. working memory, levels of processing). ...read more.


to make an extensive use of the central executive. They did this by asking carrying out verbal reasoning tasks on participants to decide whether each in a set of sentences provided a true or false description of the letter pair that followed. The predictions were that: 1. Two tasks cannot be performed successfully together if they make use of the same component. 2. If two tasks make use of different components, it will be possible to perform them as well together as separated. The working model also views verbal rehearsal as an optional process that occurs within the articulatory or phonological loop. This makes it more realistic than the central importance of verbal rehearsal in the multi-store model. On the contrary, not much information is known about the central executive and although it has a limited capacity, this capacity has not been measured accurately. It is also argued that the central executive is "modality-free" (i.e. it does not rely on any specific way of receiving information, such as sound or vision). It is also used in different processing operations but the precise details and its functioning are unknown. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Memory Process. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and ...

    3 star(s)

    Long Term Memory The continual storage of information is referred to as long term memory. Long term memory is typified as concerning semantic encoding, in particular, recalling the definition or understanding of a word as opposed to the literal word (Terry, 2009).


    The stores were the sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. Atkinson & Shiffrin agreed that the processes of attention and rehearsal were responsible for controlling the flow of information between the stages or stores. Atkinson & Shiffrin also found the measurements of human short term memory capacity to have a 7±2 limit.

  1. 'Organisation in Memory'.

    This was a higher level of significance than I predicted which was P<0.05. This means that I can reject my null hypothesis and have proven my experimental hypothesis, therefore, I have found overall that the organisation of words increases recall.

  2. Categorisation in Long-Term Memory

    This suggests that there must be some kind of semantic organisation in the long-term memory that helps improve recall. Rationale Bower found that information stored in the long term memory is organised into categories. Bower's hierarchy mainly consisted of words that are not normally used in everyday language, therefore lacking ecological validity and cannot be applied to everyday life.

  1. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    Also none of the younger children from school we used as children have to have parental consent for ethical reasons, also children may have different learning styles to those of adults or the material might be too difficult for some of them.

  2. Explain and evaluate the three models of memory.

    by the speed of which information is voiced or transferred to the loop, however the phonological loop does have a few downfalls, it is wholly based on sound and any interruptions, mainly acoustic will result in ineffective transfer of information.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    This will investigate the process of displacement, which is retrieval failure in the short-term memory. Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) proposed the idea of a multi-store model. This compares the mental procedures of humans to that of computer operations. In their research, they suggested that there was a series of information processing stages one after another.

  2. Memory and Mental Imagery

    Participants could not have been rehearsing the word pairs whilst they were performing the distracter task, it must have been stored whilst this task was being carried out. This also supports Baddeley's idea of information being stored in the working memory or, more precisely, in the phonological loop, until it is needed later.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work