Atkinson & Shriffin in 1968 proposed the Multi-Store Model of memory. It contains 3 permanent structural components; sensory, short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).
Introduction Atkinson & Shriffin in 1968 proposed the Multi-Store Model of memory. It contains 3 permanent structural components; sensory, short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). It attempt to explain how information flows from one storage system to another using the key process of rehearsal. Many studies have produced results which suggest STM & LTM code in different ways. In 1964 Conrad compared recall with acoustic and visual data. Participants (ppts) were presented with 6 letters at a time for 0.75 seconds. They were then asked to recall in the same order. Conrad found mistakes made with words that are acoustically similar suggesting STM must mainly code information according to how it sounds. LTM however encodes mainly semantically (by its meaning). Baddely in 1966 found that when he presented ppts with acoustically similar/dissimilar words and semantically similar/dissimilar words. With LTM fewer semantically similar words were recalled were as acoustically similar words had no affect in LTM recall. Suggesting that LTM mainly encode semantically. In 1950 Miller & Selfridge presented ppts with sentences of varying length which resembled true English to different degrees. Ppts were then asked to recall them in order they were presented. It was found that the closer a sentence approximated true English, the better it was recalled. This suggests that knowledge of
Success & Failure of Dieting
Explanations for success or failure of dieting Why do so many females want to lose weight? It's estimated at any 1 time 40% of the female population is trying to lose weight, usually by dieting. If you are obese, losing weight has many health benefits. But many females diet when they have faulty perceptions of their actual body or are simply dissatisfied with their bodies. Ogden ('07) suggests some factors: Media Influence, Family, Ethnicity, Social Class, Peer groups & social learning. Why doesn't dieting work? Some women can lose and maintain weight using diet only. However, most can't and bizarrely they end up eating more. Boundary model; Normal circumstances- Body weight set point controlled through homeostatic mechanisms, can't fluctuate too much (PHYSIOLOGICAL BOUNDARY). But in restrained eaters person also has a COGNITIVE lower than PHYSIOLOGICAL. Tested using Preload/taste test. Non-dieters eat until they're full; physiological. Dieters eat until cognitive reached; if high calorie preload disinhibits eating behaviour so eat until satiety. Ogden 'what the hell' Herman and Mack: 3 conditions: 1st group no preload, 2nd group 1 milkshake, 3rd group 2 milkshakes - 2 & 3 asked to rate quality of the milkshakes then all given 3 flvours of ice cream given 10 mins to rate taste, told eat as much as they want. All pps given questionnaire to assess degree of dieting. All
Memory.This experiment studies the effects that organised and unorganised lists have on the performance of memory recall. Participants were randomly assigned to conduct an experiment using two different methods; words in a random format and in an organis
MEMORY Abstract . This experiment studies the effects that organised and unorganised lists have on the performance of memory recall. Participants were randomly assigned to conduct an experiment using two different methods; words in a random format and in an organised format. 2. There were twenty subjects, split into two groups (10 participants in each). They viewed word lists that were the same, using countries only, but they were structurally different (one organised and one unorganised). The participants were than asked to recall the words from the lists. 3. The participants using the organised list did not do as well as expected and the participants that used the unorganised list did better than expected. Surprisingly, the results of the research showed that there was little difference between the two groups, regardless of the organisation. 4. The research did not support the research previously conducted by Bowers et al (1969) 5. The research showed that a larger participant sample, chosen more randomly over a longer period could give better results. Introduction Human memory is similar to computer memory, enabling us to store information for later use. There are two main types of storage for our memory - short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). This course work will only be covering STM, as this is what we will be investigating in this experiment. In
Describe two factors that influence forgetting in short-term memory (STM).
Tom Lowe Psychology homework - 21/10/05 (a) Describe two factors that influence forgetting in short-term memory (STM). One of the factors that influence forgetting is because the information no longer exists in memory, and is therefore no longer available for recall. The second influencing factor of forgetting in short term memory is that the material cannot be found, and can therefore not be recalled, this is known as 'Cue Dependent forgetting'. (b) Describe the procedures and findings of one study that has investigated the capacity of memory. Jacobs (1887) aimed to investigate the capacity of memory. To do this he presented his participants with a random sequence of digits or letters, and he then asked the participants to repeat the items back in the order that they were read. Jacobs found that the average number of items that were correctly recalled was between five and nine, and he also found that digits were recalled better than letters. He also found that the number of correctly recalled items increased with age. (c) Outline the finding(s) of one study of flashbulb memories and give one criticism of this One study aiming to investigate 'Flashbulb memories' was Conway et al. (1994). Conway argued that the resignation of Mrs. Thatcher should have produced 'flashbulb memories'. Conway tested people within a fortnight of this event and tested
Describe and evaluate theories of hypnosis
Theories of Hypnosis Describe and evaluate theories of hypnosis (25 marks) Frank Mesmer was an Austrian physicist who believed in magnetism and was one of the first hypnotists. He claimed that illnesses were caused by an imbalance in the body's own magnetic field. A process known as mesmerism came about. Patients would hold on to an iron bar in a dark room and sit around wooden barrels filled with water, ground glass and iron filings. Mesmer would play soft music, wearing a lilac robe and would tap the patients with his bar. They would often suffer convulsions and enter a trance-like-state. Mesmer claimed to be able to cure minor ailments with this method. This may have been true magnetism or the patients could just believe they are feeling the effect but it is due to their own imagination which is known as the placebo. A British physician amputated a man's leg using nothing more than hypnosis. This can be used nowadays to help people quit smoking, lose weight and go through painful dental treatment. Hypnosis is usually carried by asking the patient to stare upwards and focus on a target, and are then made suggestions about relaxation, tiredness and sleepiness. The patient's eyes should naturally close and if not then they are told to close them after 10 minutes. The individuals will sit quietly and show little or no activity unless it is suggested. Post-hypnotic amnesia
A study investigating the effects of categorisation on recall
A study investigating the effects of categorisation on recall . Introduction Background research The cognitive approach to psychology studies the processes the mind uses to deal with information and looks at areas such as language, learning, perception and memory. Cognitive psychologists commonly use models to explain information flow. These models are abstract ways of representing how the mind deals with information rather than defining separate areas of the brain for each aspect of memory. The information processing model uses the analogy of a computer system - information is received and processed in various ways by the mind before being passed into memory. Within the study of memory, there are three main processes: Encoding > Storage > Retrieval Encoding is the process of perceiving and understanding input. Storage is the way in which we commit information to memory. Retrieval is the process used to access information that is not currently in conscious memory. William James, an early psychologist, identified two types of memory - "primary memory" and "secondary memory", which are now called "short term memory" and "long term memory". Atkinson and Shiffrin's "multi-store model of memory" This theory states that there are three distinct memory stores - sensory, short term and long term. The amount of attention paid and "rehearsal" of information affects
Theories of Forgetting.
Forgetting . The greatest amount of forgetting occurs directly after finishing the learning task. 2.The greatest amount of forgetting occurs rapidly, during the first day. 3. Forgetting is still sizable during the first fourteen days. 4. Forgetting slows down after two weeks, but again there is not much left to forget. 5. Remembering what you have heard is usually more difficult than remembering what you have read. 6. Forgetting is sometimes incorrectly labelled. Normally the causes are ) Pseudo-Forgetting - You never had it forgetting 2) Mental Blur forgetting. Your brain is the only organ in your body that can't feel pain. Because of this, brain surgery can be carried out without a general anaesthetic. You are given something to numb the scalp and skull, and then the surgeon can drill through. But, if the drill slipped and started to gouge into your brain, you wouldn't feel a thing. The lack of pain receptors is a real bonus for brain surgeons. Instead of having a patient who just lies there like a sack of meat, they have somebody who can tell them what's happening as they probe and snip. In 1935 a neurosurgeon named Wilder Penfield started some experimental work at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. A patient lay in the operating theatre with the top of her skull off while Dr Penfield inserted slim electrodes into her brain. The idea was to trigger a small
Milgram Aims, Procedures and Findings
Obedience to authority is when we change our behaviour as a result of a direct order from a perceived authority figure. Obedience is necessary to maintain social order and doesn't always result in an aggressive outcome, as it can provide a productive purpose too. Milgram was part of a group of researchers interested in the destructive obedience observed during the holocaust. He wanted to understand this in order to prevent similar situations in the future. He believed that obedience is relevant to our time because, between 1933 and 1945, millions of innocents were killed. The building of gas chambers and concentration camps would not have been possible if a large number of people had disobeyed orders. Many believed that the Germans had carried out these atrocities because 'the Germans are a highly obedient nation who will follow orders whether or not these orders are moral or immoral' Milgram aimed to disprove the 'Germans are different' hypothesis, by testing the conditions under which people would obey instructions even if it went against their moral beliefs. Obedience is a deeply ingrained behaviour for many people, where the impulse to obey can override any moral or ethical beliefs. Milgram believed that obedience comes easily to us all, and is the dispositional cement that binds us to systems of authority. In an experimental situation, he aimed to investigate
A lot of research has been done to determine whether short-term memory works better in the morning or afternoon. In a study, 16-18-year-olds (sixth form students of Battersea park school) were administered to take part in a word test to assess their shor
Short term memory investigation Nerve cells require up to 24 hours before they can exchange information over new synapses. Abstract: A lot of research has been done to determine whether short-term memory works better in the morning or afternoon. In a study, 16-18-year-olds (sixth form students of Battersea park school) were administered to take part in a word test to assess their short-term memory. Results of this were analyzed. Null Hypothesis: learning in the morning is more effective Alternative hypothesis: learning in the afternoon is more effective. Introduction To learn new things, to store experiences and to adapt to new circumstances - these characteristics of the brain enable us the daily survival . This special flexibility of the brain is reached through constant making and breaking contact between nerve cells. Whenever we learn something, the connections between nerve cells, (synapses) change. At this point, the Axon of a nerve cell and the Dendrite of the neighbouring cell meet. The centre for brain research of the medical University of Vienna is currently involved in two researches that contribute to the clarification of the processes in memory. They had tested the article (of researchers at the Harvard Medical School), which is called a key experiment. It was found that a Micro RNA and the accompanying messenger RNA exist at the contact point
Outline one explanation of forgetting in long-term memory (LTM) and give one criticism of this explanation.
Cognitive Psychology a) Outline one explanation of forgetting in long-term memory (LTM) and give one criticism of this explanation. (3 marks + 3 marks) There are two reason as to why forgetting in long-term memory may occur, these are: the interference theory and the retrieval failure theory. The interference theory works in two parts, these are proactive (this is where earlier memories disrupt later ones) and retroactive (this is later memories disrupt earlier memories). One criticism of the interference theory is that most of the research into the interference theory has come from laboratory experiments and therefore lack external validity. b) Describe the procedures of one study by Loftus of eyewitness testimony and give one criticism of this study. (3 marks + 3 marks) One study on eyewitness testimony was based on the effects of language on recall, this was studies by Loftus and Palmer (1974). They showed a number of participant a video of a road accident, involving a number of cars, they where asked to describe what had happened after the video, they were also asked a number of question, of which one word was changed, for example, when the word smashed was used to describe the impact of the cars, the speed the participant thought they were going increased, when the word bumped was used the speed was slower. One criticism of this study s that it lacked external