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Pain Disorder

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Pain There are two main kinds of clinical pain, acute and chronic pain. Acute Pain Acute pain typically results from some specific injury that produces tissue damage, such as a wound or broken limb. As, such it is self-limiting and typically disappears when tissue damage is repaired. Acute pain is usually short in duration and is defined as pain that goes on for 6 months or less. Once it is going on it can produce substantial anxiety and prompts its sufferer to engage in an urgent search for relief. For e.g pain killers. Chronic Pain This typically begins with an acute episode, but unlike acute pain, it does not decrease with treatment and passage of time. There are several kinds of chronic pain. Chronic benign pain typically persists for 6 months or longer and is relatively intractable to treatment. It varies in severity and may involve any number of muscle groups.For e.g chronic lower back pain. Recurrent acute pain involves a series of intermittent episodes of pain that are acute in character, but chronic inasmuch as the condition persists for more than 6 months. ...read more.


The theory acknowledges some degree of specificity in the pain transmission system (pain differs in their qualities). It allows for the role of psychological processes in the pain experience. It helps explain the different kinds of pain that individuals experience Neurochemical Bases of Pain and its Inhibition Melzack and Wall (1965,1982) maintained that the brain can control the amount of pain an individual exexperiences by transmitting messages down the spinal chord to block the transmission of pain signals. If the brain is electrically stimulating a portion of the brain, then pain may not be felt. This is called stimulation produced algesia. Endogenous opioids are neurochemicals important in the natural pain suppressing system of the body. It is not always in operation. Particular factors trigger its arousal. The release of endogenous opioids may be one of the mechanisms underlying various techniques of pain control. Opioid drugs do not appear to be particularly successful in relieving noncancer pain, but they may be successful in relieving cancer pain. Measuring Pain One barrier to the treatment of pain is the difficulty people have describing it objectively. ...read more.


Problems, persons can develop addictions to prescription drugs. Relaxation Techniques: Relaxation training has been employed with pain patients extensively, either alone or in concert with other pain control techniques. Relaxation aids in coping with stress and anxiety which can cause pain to worsen. Controlled breathing, from short shallow breaths to deeper longer breaths. For example childbirth techniques. Hypnosis: Hypnosis produces a relaxation engendered trance. Patients are told (power of suggestion) that hypnosis will reduce pain. Hypnosis is itself a distraction from the pain experience of pain. Hypnosis has been successful in control acute pain due to surgery, childbirth, dental procedures and headaches. Guided imagery: A patient is instructed to conjure up a picture that he or she holds in mind during the painful experience. The patient is encouraged to visualize a peaceful, relatively unchanging scene, to hold it in mind, and to focus on it fully. Guided imagery can control slow-rising pains that can be anticipated and prepared for, or it can be used to control the discomfort of a painful medical procedure. For e.g advocates of prepared childbirth encourage the woman in labour to develop a focal point a real or imagined picture that she can focus on fully when labour pains begin. ...read more.

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