• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Personality in Sports

Extracts from this document...


Task One Personality Personality is a mixture of a person's traits and characteristics which make them different from everyone else. Sports performers personalities' may widely vary or be very similar. When describing their personality, just listing characteristics is not always 100% accurate. This is because their characteristics may be different when not playing sports. For example, Eric Cantona may only be aggressive when on the football pitch and not in his everyday life. Because of this, Hollander then designed a structure of personality which was split into 3 layers: 1. Psychological core - true beliefs and values 2. Typical responses - normal response to a situation. 3. Role-related behaviour - response is affected by the social environment the person is in. These can also be shown on a diagram like this: Social Environment Structure of personality example - Theo Walcott. CHARACTERISTICS PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE TYPICAL RESPONSES ROLE-RELATED BEHAVIOUR Humble Quiet Motivated Committed Focussed Competitive Driven Fearless Another way in which sports psychologists differentiate between sports personalities is with the trait approach. Two psychologists, Cattell and Eyesnck, discovered that there are two types of traits: - Primary or source traits - genetic/inherited - Secondary or surface traits - influenced by learning and experiences. Eyesnck said that personality was mainly inherited traits. He came up with a way to measure these traits, on a Personality Inventory. ...read more.


I also agree with this because it seems to be displayed in everyday life and therefore is very accurate and simple. In addition to the Interactionist Theory, another theory in sports psychology is the Social Learning Theory. Badura claims that we learn to deal with situations by observing others and my modelling our own behaviour on what we have seen. Social approval or disapproval reinforces our responses. Therefore behaviour is determined largely by the situation and the role of the personality is played down. This means that the Social Learning Theory is more a theory of behaviour, not personality. The implications of social learning can be see within sport in the form of role models: For example: A netball player is in a game and accidently manages to trip up an opposing player. Instead of leaving her there to try and get the ball, she helps her up and says sorry. This would show the spectators watching that opposing teams can be nice to each other. If this behaviour is reinforced by clapping, the behaviour is more likely to be repeated. I also agree with this theory. I believe that if someone sees their idol sports player exhibit certain behaviour, it is extremely likely for them to copy it. Although, this theory would probably be most accurate if said about children. ...read more.


A theory towards motivation is the Attribution Theory. The attribution theory developed as a way of explaining how individuals and teams evaluate their levels of success and failure in performance situations. An example of a reason provided for success is that there were good decisions made by the referee. An example of a reason provided for failure is that the players were tired/injured. The attributions are important because they can affect: - Immediate emotional reactions - Actual behaviour - Aspirations - Expectations - Achievement - Motivation - Future Participation Weiner's Attribution Model This theory suggests that all reasons we give for what has caused success or failure can be grouped into several categories: - Ability - Effort - Task difficulty - Luck Weiner then organised these categories into two dimensions: locus of casualty and stability. He then put these into an 'attribution model': Attribution Errors: Attribution is closely linked to self-esteem and self confidence. Performers can use attributions to protect their self-esteem when it is threatened. This is known as self-serving bias. Success is often attributed to internal reasons (e.g. "I was just faster and fitter than the others in my race"). Failure is often attributed to external reasons (e.g. My new trainers gave me a blister within the first mile and the pain was just agony"). Attributing correctly/incorrectly can easily affect motivation. If an athlete can attribute failure to their own poor performance, they are more likely to make changes in a positive manner. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)

The writer has covered a great deal in this essay although they may have gone slightly off focus when going into so much detail about motivation.

The writer needs to concentrate on all the personality theories first and foremost. They need to describe these clearly and use the occasional reference too.

The conclusion should weigh up all the information available. At present the essay ends abruptly and the conclusion is absent.

Star rating 3*

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 14/10/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level The Psychology of Individual Differences essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and contrast two psychological approaches

    4 star(s)

    was developing this theory in the 1800's it has been commented that it is outdated and no longer relevant to modern society. Even with all this criticism psychoanalysis has been a very good basis for many therapies still used today.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology the factors of Smoking

    4 star(s)

    An opposite effect is an individual gets laughed at for smoking in a group of students and stops smoking this is punishment. Strengths of this theory are that it makes sense that an individual can copy the behaviour of others by positive reinforcement to fit in to the social circle

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast Any Two Theories of Personality

    3 star(s)

    neo-Freudians differed from him in two important ways, they focused more on the egos conscious and disbelieved sex and aggression were the only motives. Instead they emphasised the other motives and social interactions. Alfred Adler and Karen Horney agreed with Freud that childhood experience is important.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the five main perspectives in psychology

    3 star(s)

    schizophrenia Cognitive therapies have been criticized on ethical grounds; the clients? problem behaviours or thoughts are being changed to those which the therapist sees as acceptable; who is to say that they are correct? The behaviorist approach is deterministic: people?s behaviour is assumed to be entirely controlled by their environment

  1. The Gestalt Approach to Psychology

    Premature closure feels better than leaving the gestalt open, but the original need still unconsciously demands satisfaction. The result is that experience, physiology and behaviour become totally preoccupied with resolving the unfinished business. Awareness of the present situation is now hindered, making it difficult to make contact and meet current needs.

  2. Outline and Evaluate the Biological, Psychodynamic and Cognitive Explanations of Abnormality

    Patients suffering from severe depression may benefit from this therapy, with previous results showing that ECT may alleviate the condition for up to a year. This is a good short term treatment; however 60% of patients will become depressed again within the year, and would need additional therapy.

  1. Schizophrenia. This essay shall discuss the various theoretical causes of schizophrenia including; biological explanations ...

    In this way, Freud reasoned that rather than accepting their own views or urges, they might develop 'paranoid' ideas about other people and their intentions. This would explain some of the delusional or paranoid behaviour of schizophrenic patients; but unfortunately, like most psychodynamic explanations, supporting evidence is absent, (Stirling and Hellewell, 1999).

  2. The contents of this essay will explain different psychological approaches to health and social ...

    (Stretch et al, 2010) The Social Learning Theory and Health Care Practice A similar yet different approach is neo-behaviourism, which is associated with the social learning theory. This attempts to explain all behaviours in terms of observation and imitation. Therefore an individual learns to behave in certain according to the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work