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Personality.There are a number of different theories that try to explain how personality develops and some of the main ones are: Biological Theory

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Introduction

Personality Theories of Personality: There are a number of different theories that try to explain how personality develops and some of the main ones are: * Biological Theory * Psychodynamic Theory * Humanistic Theory * Social Learning Theory * Trait Theory Biological Theory: Early theories of personality tended to focus upon biological aspects. These have now moved on from the simple ones proposed by the Greeks, which assigned individuals to one of four categories, depending upon the predominance of bodily fluids. However, it is important to note that those who support the biological explanation do not believe that all behavior, all the time, is under biological influences. There are certain biological factors that influence sporting behavior, for example, height and body shape, but no sport psychologist would claim that these are the basis of personality, rather that there is an interaction between the biological factors and personality. Psychodynamic Theory: Freud is the most famous psychologist associated with psychodynamic theory. ...read more.

Middle

Neither theory has played a significant role in the links between personality and sport. Trait Theory: The main belief to this theory is that individuals possess certain personality traits that are relatively stable and enduring over time. Therefore it means that if traits can e identified, behaviour can, to a point, be predicted. A predisposition toward a certain trait does not mean that individuals will always act in that way but there is a strong likelihood. For example, a person who has a high level of trait competitiveness would be expected to be competitive in a range of different situations. Multi-trait theories aim to identify the range of traits that are central to personality and hence give an indication of the person as a whole. The assumption of these theories is that we all share the same basic personality structure but we differ in the amount we display particularly traits. The two main trait theorists are Eysenck and Cattell. ...read more.

Conclusion

Single-trait theorists are not aiming to investigate the whole of personality; rather they are focusing on one aspects of personality and attempting to explain how that personality trait influences behaviour. These include theories such as 'Rotter's locus of control' and 'McClellend's need for achievement'. Critical Analyse: Trait theories have generated an enormous amount of personality research and offer an appealing approach to the explanation of personality. However, critics argue that identified traits are quite poor predictors of actual behaviour, as people do not always behave in exactly the same way. Trait theories also fail to take into account individuals' experience and the knowledge they have gained about themselves. Social Learning Theory: According to social learning theory, behaviour is not a result of unconscious motives; rather it is learnt through the environment. Therefore personality traits are less important as the environment is salient. The main ways in which our personalities develop, according to this theory, re modeling, learning through observation and through reinforcement (behaviors that are reinforced are likely to be repeated). ...read more.

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