• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Social and Personality Development, Cultural Difference in Adolescents

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

PYA4 - Social & Personality Development Cultural Differences in Adolescence This topic has NEVER generated a question on the examination - which DOES NOT mean that it will definitely be on the paper in January. However, in preparation, we'll consider the important AO1 and AO2 material to include; AO1 - Distinction between Individualistic and Collectivist cultures & what characterises them Experiences during adolescence may vary from culture to culture due to the values and beliefs held by such societies. Traditionally, a distinction has been made between Individualistic and collectivist cultures and with it the characteristics of each. Individualistic cultures focus on achievement and independence, autonomy and choice, whilst the emphasis in collectivist cultures surrounds social responsibility and conformity, groups needs and inter-dependence. Examples of individualistic cultures might be the UK, USA and most of Europe, whilst collectivist cultures can be observed in Mexico, the Phillippines, China and Japan. Individualistic cultures such as the USA & UK are achievement orientated so parents socialise their adolescents to be achievement orientated and independent. Collectivist cultures value personal achievement less than group achievement and obedience and responsibility. This collectivist individualist distinction falls down when one looks at other research. Some collectivist cultures, such as Japan and China, are very much achievement orientated. ...read more.

Middle

If this is the case, then the problems associated with this period of life (adolescence) can perhaps be seen to reflect cultural determination. That is to say, that wherever industrialisation has not occurred, 'storm and stress', as characterised by conflict, crisis, identity diffusion & moratorium might not be observed. It is possible that exposure to he 'universal' culture of the American media (e.g. TV, internet, etc) may act to reduce cultural differences in the experience of Adolescence. TV and the Internet represent an immediate and accessible medium for 'exploration' and provide perhaps 'stereotyped' representations o 'popular' norms and values (e.g. programmes such as 'friends' and 'Dawson's Creek'). As more people are increasingly exposed to such media we may find that the cross - cultural differences observed become less pronounced and apparent. That is to say that non - western 'adolescence' may become 'Americanised' and vice - versa. AO1 - Experiences of Adolescence in Western Vs. Non-western cultures in relation to the achievement of adult identity and status (e.g. rites of passage in N-W cultures, moratorium in W cultures) Our experiences of adolescence in Western societies do tend to involve this 'moratorium', whereby the individual is faced with 'teenage' life. Life as a teenager in the Western world brings with it choice and the challenge to develop a sense of 'self' (identity), becoming increasingly self-reliant (autonomous) ...read more.

Conclusion

She also highlighted that the community was sexually liberated, with young people being encouraged to explore, with little emotional turmoil. Research by Margaret Mead has been criticised. Freeman (1993) suggested, that whilst she studied the Samoan community in great detail her command of the local language was poor, she was "conned" by some of the teenage girls she interviewed and she "saw" what she wanted to see which lead to researcher bias. This means that her findings may be non - representative of a truly 'non - western' non- industrialised society, since the people being observed and interviewed may have presented themselves in a more positive light, in response to her investigations. Therefore the conclusion drawn by Mead lack validity, as her observations did not 'measure' what they set out to do and are subject to demand characteristics. AO1 - Extension material = Differences in sexual practices Anthropologists found that a remote island off Ireland was one of the most sexually na�ve cultures in the world. Knowledge of the basic facts in adolescence - menstruation, intercourse, conception was virtually non - existent. The Polynesia on the other hand believes hat adolescent sexual experience is extremely important. Historical differences within our society, Research has shown steady increase in the number of adolescents. Having intercourse before the age of 16 Rachael Green - Wheeler ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Child Labour.

    The great agricultural land was used for cash crops, which means export to other countries. As a result of cash crops many countries face decline in food. Farmland owned by people suffers from lost of their own business and cultural rights to grow crops.

  2. Task1 Counselling 1aPhysical signs and symptoms of stress

    Knowledge is not merely transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the learner. Piaget asserted that for a child to know and construct knowledge of the world, the child must act on objects and it is this action which provides knowledge of those objects., and the mind organises reality and acts upon it.

  1. Psychology - Stress

    if there is any progress made, it comes from the individual's commitment to improve their condition. Progressive muscle relaxation is also used as an effective way of reducing the physical signs of stress such as heart rate and blood pressure, it is seen as a straight forward means of stress

  2. Critically respond to the characteristics of adolescents and examine the implications both personally and ...

    The adolescent also acquires facts, but he wants to know the reasons behind them. He has an intellectual capacity far above that of the child, and he can grasp general principles, theories, and implications. He can see through some of the surface responses of people to their real feelings.

  1. Job stress

    (Gale group, 2000). Lastly being black women is associated with increased vulnerability to stressor. The rate of stress in Black women remains about twice that of whites' women. South African black women are faced with added stress from racial discrimination.

  2. What do we mean by resilience? How

    These so called protective factors protect no matter what the child's diagnosis, disability, or experiential risks. Studies also show that the greater the number of risk factors a child possesses the greater number of protective factors he or she needs to promote a positive outcome.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work