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Social psychology - Social Interaction Sequence

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY SOCIAL INTERACTION SEQUENCE 1 Expectancies 2 How would you act? 3 Interpret meaning 4 Response 5 Interpret response SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY STUDIES.. * The ways in which their behaviour was influenced by this environment * The nature and causes of behaviour and mental processes in social situations * Attitudes, conformity, persuasion, obedience Attitudes are based on.. * Cognitive Evaluations - approval/disapproval * Feelings - liking/disliking/love * Behavioural Tendencies - approach/avoidance COMPONENTS OF AN ATTITUDE * COGNITIVE - beliefs / ideas held about the object of an attitude * EMOTIONAL [AFFECTIVE] - feelings stimulated * BEHAVIOURAL - predisposition to act in certain ways Factors which influence the likelihood we can predict behaviour * SPECIFICITY --> we can better predict behaviour from specific attitudes Ex: can better predict church attendance from knowing Christian affiliation than whether they are Christian * STRENGTH OF ATTITUDE --> strong attitudes are more likely to predict behaviour than weak attitudes Ex: person who believes USA's future can only be secure under a Republican, more likely to campaign * VESTED INTEREST --> an interest in the outcome Ex: worker who wants pay increase is more likely to go on strike * ACCESSIBILITY --> people are more likely to express attitudes when they are accessible Ex: political campaign just before election Where do we learn attitudes?? *CONDITIONING - attitudes can be a conditioned response to an unconditioned stimulus *DIRECT EXPERIENCE - peer pressure might teach attitudes *OBSERVATION - we gain attitudes from watching others or the media COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - we become uncomfortable if people's behaviours don't match their strongly held attitudes ==> we are motivated to make our attitudes and behaviours consistent .. mostly by changing our attitudes to agree with our actual behaviours FESTINGER + CARLSMITH'S CLASSIC $1 EXPERIMENT * Asked college students to do 30 minutes of very tedious and boring work while alone in a laboratory room * Some were offered $1 as a reward to tell the next subject what an exciting and thrilling task it ...read more.

Middle

* Reciprocity - mutual exchange of feelings, attitudes. Reason: people more open to those who seem to like them LOVE * SIMILARITY ~ dating and married couples tend to be similar in age, race, class, religion, education, attitudes, interests * PROXIMITY ~ tendency to fall in love with people who live nearby * ATTRACTIVENESS ~ tendency to fall in love with people whose attractiveness matches our own 2 main types of love * PASSIONATE/ROMANTIC LOVE - highly emotional/erotic first stage of relationship. Ability to consider long term consequences of sexual behaviour limited by intense emotions and irrational thoughts. Emotional high ==> 6~30 months * COMPANIONATE/AFFECTIONATE LOVE - develops as passionate love cools. Intimacy and commitment, less passionate, acceptance that your partner is not perfect Triangular Model of Love ~ Robert Sternberg CONFORMITY ~ when we change our behaviour to adhere to social norms SOCIAL NORMS = widely accepted expectations of how people should behave in social situations We learn social norms from REFERENCE GROUPS = groups that set social norms you are expected to live up to. They determine the goals you should attain, reward you for moving towards them and punish you for moving against them * Set goals for members (provide comparison points) * Reward for moving towards them, punish for moving against them SOLOMON ASCH'S STUDY OF CONFORMITY <== early 1950s * Two cards - one with an 8" line, the other with 3 lines of differing lengths (one 8") * Subjects asked to identify the line on the second card which was the same length as the line on the first card * Controls: answers reported privately, correct 99% of the time * Experimental: "confederates" hired to say the wrong answer, subjects conformed 2/3 of the time Factors that influence conformity * Group size - most likely to conform when there are around 5 people in the group. Maximum pressure - 4~5 people * Social support - even if one person agrees with you, you are less likely to conform ...read more.

Conclusion

Subjects may have been influenced by the reputation and authority of the setting * FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE - once they began delivering shocks to learners, subjects may have found it progressively more difficult to pull out of the situation * INACCESSIBILITY OF VALUES - people act in accordance with their attitudes when attitudes are readily accessible. Strong emotions interfere with clear thinking. As subjects became more upset, attitudes become less accessible * BUFFERS - decrease the effect of the learner's pain on the subject (eg. Learners being in another room) ~ JONES TOWN, GUIANA, NOV 28th 1978 from the American 'People's Temple' ==> following the murder of a US congressman investigating the cult * POWER OF SITUATION o Far from home o Completely dependent on leader o Cut off from everyone they knew o Paranoid about everyone outside the group ~ SITUATIONAL INFLUENCE POWER OF COGNITIVE CONTROL * What is their situation? * How is their perception of the situation different from yours? NATIONAL VIEW = CONFLICT * "We" (USA) are reasonable/right < peace loving > * "They" (Russia) are wrong < aggressive / hostile > = False assumptions - Small differences lead to prejudice - Fundamental attribution error ~ EXPERIMENT: RICEVILLE SCHOOL, IOWA * 1968 - Jane Elliott (3rd grade teacher) shows arbitrary discrimination o Brown eyed people = "inferior" o Blue eyed people = "superior" < alter objective reality > * Blue eyed children began to discriminate against brown eyed children within 15 minutes * STEREOTYPING - collars put on brown eyed kids (in and out groups --> exclusive) * SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY ~ EXPERIMENT: POSITIVE EXPECTATIONS * ROBERT ROSENTHAL + principal LENORE JACOBSEN: Pygmalion Effect * Showing teacher expectations affects student's intellectual performance and IQ * Harvard test of inflected acquisition - 4 factors o Climate factor: create warmer climate for favoured students o Input factor: teach more material to favoured students o Response opportunity factor: more chance to respond for favoured students o Feedback: praised more for good answer and more differentiated feedback for wrong answer ...read more.

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