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The biological perspective - The mind and the body.

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Introduction

THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE * The mind ~ what contains our memories, thoughts, emotions, and controls our actions * The body ~ the vessel that interacts with the physical world * Mind and body ~ united: we need both to function effectively * Oliver Sacks (1985) > "The Man who Mistook His Wife For a Hat" - Mr P. faced neurologist Oliver Sacks with his ears, not his eyes - Gaze fixates on Sacks's features one at a time - Mistakes his wife for a hat - Unable to recognize rose: "convoluted red form with a linear green attachment" => smells it and realizes what it is - ==> Could recognize geometric shapes - senses work - Agnosia ~ inability to recognize people/objects even when basic sensory modalities are intact. Senses tell us about an object/person but we cannot recognize them * Phantom Limb Phenomena - People perceive an amputated limb as if it were still there - May feel burning, cramping, shooting pains in amputated limbs - ==> Neurons from amputated area are still firing to the brain - Body controls mind * Phantom Pregnancy - Woman believes she is pregnant when she is not - Will have symptoms of pregnancy (morning sickness, abdominal swelling, foetal movements and may even claim she is in labour) - Menstruation not entirely suppressed and woman may under pressure admit to "scanty cyclical blood loss" - ==> Approaching menopause/wanting children - ==> So convinced that her brain made her body think she is actually pregnant - Mind controls body * IMPORTANT LESSONS IN THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE - It is possible to overpsychologize ~ many diseases have been blamed on psychological factors (bad mothering, bad attitudes), but biological research has proved this wrong - We are influenced by the workings of our bodies ~ to understand human beings we must understand the actions of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, sensory organs and neurons * Dualism (Rene Descartes) ...read more.

Middle

- AMYGDALA ~ influences motivation, emotional control, fear responses, interpretations of nonverbal/emotional expressions - HIPPOCAMPUS ~ emotions, ability to remember, ability to compare sensory information to expectations <The Limbic System * The Cerebral Cortex - PARIETAL LOBE ~ receives/processes messages about pain, touch, pressure, temperature - OCCIPITAL LOBE ~ receives/processes visual messages from eyes - TEMPORAL LOBE ~ processes sound and smell - FRONTAL LOBE ~ personality, ability to learn, remember, think quickly and abstractly, make plans, solve problems, control voluntary muscles, integrate information from other lobes * Strokes - Disorder and Cause * Hemorrhagic stroke ~ blood vessel breaks * Ischemic stroke ~ clot blocks artery/vein, prevents blood from flowing * Interruption of blood flow to the brain => kills brain cells in the area, which die within a few minutes * Pressure on the brain => damage - Effect on Behaviour * Trouble seeing * Paralysis * Balance/coordination * Cognitive deficit * Memory loss * Contralateral effects (mood swings, depression, emotional response) - Treatment/drugs * Aspirin ~ prevents recurrent stroke * Diet/weight loss ~ reduces blood pressure * Stop smoking/doing drugs * Glass of wine * Plasminogen ~ anticoagulant * Epilepsy - Disorder and Cause * Abnormal electrical activity in parts of the brain * 60% of epilepsy = cause unknown; otherwise, brain damage or meningitis * GRAND MAL (generalized seizures) ~ electrical signals all over the brain, affects the whole body. Loss of consciousness, loss of control of motor neurons => convulsions * PETIT MAL (partial seizures) ~ small signals in small parts of the brain => brief unconsciousness - Effect on Behaviour * Surge of energy throughout brain => unconsciousness, massive contraction of muscles - Treatment/drugs * Ketogenic diet ~ changes the way energy is taken from food * Surgery ~ surgical removal of seizure-producing areas of the brain * Vagus nerve stimulation ~ regular pulses of electrical energy to prevent/interrupt these electrical disturbances in the brain * Anticonvulsive drugs * Parkinson's Disease - Disorder and Cause * Believed to ...read more.

Conclusion

2. Inflammation at injury: blood vessels first constrict to stop bleeding, then dilate, increasing blood flow (flooding area with white blood cells) * STRESS stimulates steroids => suppresses functioning of the immune system: persistent secretion of steroids reduce formation of antibodies and decrease inflammation - More vulnerable to disease (cold, flu, cancer, STDs, headaches, backaches) - However moderate correlation :: not everyone under stress falls ill * Glass/Singer/Selye * Predictability Factor ~ we get less stressed by situations we can anticipate/predict * HEREDITY ~ the biological transmission of characteristics from one generation to another * GENES ~ segments of DNA that carry hereditary information * TRAITS ~ general characteristics and dispositions that are presumably the basis for an individual's particular behaviour patterns - UNIGENIC TRAITS :: genetic transmission which is dependent on the action of a single pair of genes (Mendelian inheritance) - POLYGENIC TRAITS :: genetic transmission which is dependent on the action of multiple pairs of genes * Heredity.. - Makes our behaviour possible - Places limits on us (genetically inherited diseases) * Genetics influences.. - Physical traits - Personality traits * Genotype ~ the genetic code an individual carries in the DNA of their cells * Phenotype ~ characteristic * Identical Twins (monozygotic) ~ same ovum splits into two 1. Look alike 2. Hold common traits 3. More likely to share psychological disorders * Fraternal Twins (dizygotic) ~ two ova are released and fertilized * THOMAS BOUCHARD and the UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA study (1980-1990) ~ To discover the extent to which heredity and environment were each involved in determining various psychological and personality traits - JIM SPRINGER & JIM LEWIS (separated at 4 weeks) * Put on weight at the same age * Chewed fingernails * Had hemorrhoids * Part-time deputy sheriffs * Vacationed in same part of Florida * Married women named Betty, divorced women named Linda * Named first son "James" * Owned same model of blue Chevrolet * Drank Miller Lite beer and smoked Salem cigarettes * Owned dog named "Toy" - THE GIGGLE TWINS * Grew up apart, but both laughed at the same things ...read more.

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