Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3

The Developmental Needs of Children.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Developmental Needs of Children Middle childhood (ages of approximately 6-10 years) is a period of time when children enter the larger culture (primarily through schooling) and develop the intellectual and social skills they need to function effectively outside their family environment.1 Children spend more and more time with non-family members, including peers and teachers. They spend less time under supervision of parents, more under supervision of teachers and other adults, such as coaches, youth group leaders, or teachers. Consequently, they spend more time with peers outside the immediate influence of parents and become more concerned with social expectations of peers and adults. With increased freedom, children feel greater demands to be "good," show respect, and accommodate to social demands of situations, such as the classroom or non-familial social settings. With increasing social experience and the development of new intellectual skills, children: * Master fundamental skills considered important by culture, such as reading and arithmetic; * Develop self-awareness, such as knowing how to go about learning; * Develop skills in consciously planning, coordinating, and evaluating progress, and modifying plans, based on self-evaluation; * Develop abilities to reflect on themselves and understand that others have different points of view.

Middle

Some of the key developmental changes occurring during adolescence include4: * The physical changes associated with puberty. * The increasing ability to think abstractly-consider the hypothetical, look at multiple dimensions of the same situation, and reflect on themselves. * More understanding of internal psychological characteristics; the development of friendships based more on perceived compatibility of personal characteristics. * Distancing of relationships with parents and family. * Importance of social acceptance, peak of peer conformity. The structure of schools (greater size, multiple teachers) may actually reduce opportunities for adolescents to form close relationships with teachers. The higher standards of judgment imposed in school and work settings may be related to decline in self-perception. Well-designed out-of-school programs and contexts can provide adolescents with experiences to counter the potentially negative impacts of school settings by providing5: * Opportunities to form secure and stable relationships with caring peers and adults. * Safe and attractive places to be with their friends. * Opportunities to develop relevant life-skills. * Opportunities to contribute to their communities. * Opportunities to feel competent by highlighting effort rather than competition.

Conclusion

* Personal and social competence: life and leadership skills training, including conflict resolution, decision making, mentoring, preparation for parenthood, and sexual abuse prevention. * Cognitive and emotional competence: tutoring, homework clinics, communication and computer skills, opportunities to develop interests and avocations in science, technology, music and the arts. * Preparation for work: career awareness, technical training, internships, summer job placements, and paid employment in youth and community organizations. * Leadership and citizenship: community service, leadership-skills development, youth advisory boards, and civics education. 1 "The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14." Jacquelynne S. Eccles. The Future of Children: WHEN SCHOOL IS OUT. Vol. 9 (2) Fall 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Identity, Youth, and Crisis. Erik Erikson. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1968. 4 Ibid. note 7. 5 Ibid. note 1. 6 "When School is Out: Challenges and Recommendations," The Future of Children: WHEN SCHOOL IS OUT, Vol. 9 (2) Fall 1999. A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Out-of-School Hours, Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1994. Nurturing Young Black Males, Ronald B. Mincy (Ed.), The Urban Institute Press, 1994. The Kindness of Strangers: Adult Mentors, Urban Youth, and the New Voluntarism, Marc Freedman, Jossey-Bass, 1993. 7 A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Out-of-School Hours. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. 1994.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    I gave the observation sheet to Mrs Paterson to write about my interaction. Mrs Paterson did rate me slightly lower on a couple of issues. These were really useful to me in aiding me to create a realistic action plan.

  2. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    * Critical period - Bowlby was influenced by ethologists such as Lorenz and he believed too that humans would have a 'critical period'. He felt that babies needed to have developed their main attachment by the age of one year and that during a child's first four years, prolonged separation from this person would cause long-term psychological damage.

  1. I have decided to do my portfolio on Beaufort Park School, for several reasons. ...

    This is monitored for a few weeks to see if there is any improvement. * Also a nurse comes to talk to the boys and girls separately about the changes that will occur in their bodies within the next few years.

  2. Consider how your placement setting was effective in meeting the learning needs of all ...

    (DfEE/QCA, 2000:25) Resources are brightly coloured and are in interesting, familiar shapes. The home corner is quite realistic and the children role play 'families' thus developing communication, sharing and turn-taking skills. I also observed that each area for learning e.g.

  1. Is Homework Beneficial to Children in Any way?

    (HMSO, 1995, p2) But interestingly none of these purposes make direct reference to the use of homework as a means to raise attainment. Is this because the government don't actually have any solid evidence to back up their notion and therefore have a weak argument?

  2. Education for citizenship is important because every society needs people to contribute effectively, in ...

    For example, children will often cry out "that's not fair!" when they have experienced injustice. Human rights education can be build on understanding of injustice, the sense of fair play and can explore why certain behaviour is unfair. The topic may be demanding for children with special educational needs, however,

  1. Report on Reading Dads Promotion at Leicester Prison

    Although participant were a little unwilling to demonstrate their imagination and creativity at the beginning of the session they soon loosened up. Some with lower skill levels found the session difficult to keep up with and would have liked there to have been less writing involved but in general found it interesting and useful.

  2. Is the landowner the driving force in urban redevelopment?

    look at the Borough of Tower Hamlets, both in London. The choice of four provincial cities also facilitates comparison of the research findings, as they are not susceptible to the types of locational influences (the presence of a major international financial centre, for instance)

  • Over 180,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.