• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Developmental Needs of Children.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Developmental Needs of Children Middle childhood (ages of approximately 6-10 years) is a period of time when children enter the larger culture (primarily through schooling) and develop the intellectual and social skills they need to function effectively outside their family environment.1 Children spend more and more time with non-family members, including peers and teachers. They spend less time under supervision of parents, more under supervision of teachers and other adults, such as coaches, youth group leaders, or teachers. Consequently, they spend more time with peers outside the immediate influence of parents and become more concerned with social expectations of peers and adults. With increased freedom, children feel greater demands to be "good," show respect, and accommodate to social demands of situations, such as the classroom or non-familial social settings. With increasing social experience and the development of new intellectual skills, children: * Master fundamental skills considered important by culture, such as reading and arithmetic; * Develop self-awareness, such as knowing how to go about learning; * Develop skills in consciously planning, coordinating, and evaluating progress, and modifying plans, based on self-evaluation; * Develop abilities to reflect on themselves and understand that others have different points of view. ...read more.

Middle

Some of the key developmental changes occurring during adolescence include4: * The physical changes associated with puberty. * The increasing ability to think abstractly-consider the hypothetical, look at multiple dimensions of the same situation, and reflect on themselves. * More understanding of internal psychological characteristics; the development of friendships based more on perceived compatibility of personal characteristics. * Distancing of relationships with parents and family. * Importance of social acceptance, peak of peer conformity. The structure of schools (greater size, multiple teachers) may actually reduce opportunities for adolescents to form close relationships with teachers. The higher standards of judgment imposed in school and work settings may be related to decline in self-perception. Well-designed out-of-school programs and contexts can provide adolescents with experiences to counter the potentially negative impacts of school settings by providing5: * Opportunities to form secure and stable relationships with caring peers and adults. * Safe and attractive places to be with their friends. * Opportunities to develop relevant life-skills. * Opportunities to contribute to their communities. * Opportunities to feel competent by highlighting effort rather than competition. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Personal and social competence: life and leadership skills training, including conflict resolution, decision making, mentoring, preparation for parenthood, and sexual abuse prevention. * Cognitive and emotional competence: tutoring, homework clinics, communication and computer skills, opportunities to develop interests and avocations in science, technology, music and the arts. * Preparation for work: career awareness, technical training, internships, summer job placements, and paid employment in youth and community organizations. * Leadership and citizenship: community service, leadership-skills development, youth advisory boards, and civics education. 1 "The Development of Children Ages 6 to 14." Jacquelynne S. Eccles. The Future of Children: WHEN SCHOOL IS OUT. Vol. 9 (2) Fall 1999. 2 Ibid. 3 Identity, Youth, and Crisis. Erik Erikson. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1968. 4 Ibid. note 7. 5 Ibid. note 1. 6 "When School is Out: Challenges and Recommendations," The Future of Children: WHEN SCHOOL IS OUT, Vol. 9 (2) Fall 1999. A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Out-of-School Hours, Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1994. Nurturing Young Black Males, Ronald B. Mincy (Ed.), The Urban Institute Press, 1994. The Kindness of Strangers: Adult Mentors, Urban Youth, and the New Voluntarism, Marc Freedman, Jossey-Bass, 1993. 7 A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Out-of-School Hours. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. 1994. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Physical, Social and Emotional Development of Children.

    (Yvonne Nolan: BTEC National Early Years). He noted that fighting is often ritualised in animals. Through this ritual aggression, animals avoid killing each other. According to Lorenz, humans have inherited the 'warrior' instinct, but no longer ritualise aggression because they have developed weapons.

  2. Is Homework Beneficial to Children in Any way?

    Because schoolwork also involves homework-the bringing home of work-it means that the youngest is under steady pressure of this job, they are also developing sound work habits." (Levine & Anesko, 1987, p26) Apparently, learning to deal with stress and pressure is another good work habit that is a derivative of homework.

  1. Communication skills in a group interaction.

    I know that I am aware of what makes good communication for younger ages, basic simple instructions; however it is a lot harder to remember whilst in an interaction. * Because I was interacting with a group of five, sometimes I found myself interrupting because the task was not moving on effectively.

  2. Consider how your placement setting was effective in meeting the learning needs of all ...

    learning are covered throughout all activities which I will discuss in more depth; this includes outdoor play which is also specially planned for. "Well-planned play, both indoors and outdoors, is a key way in which young children learn with enjoyment and challenge."

  1. I have decided to do my portfolio on Beaufort Park School, for several reasons. ...

    They will evaluate and separate out all the positive and negative points. As a result, the school will possibly alter the service that it provides to parents and pupils. For example, from the last report that the school received, the school made improvements, and some changes to the negative points in the report.

  2. Report on Reading Dads Promotion at Leicester Prison

    and due to the heat on the day in question, finished early as participants were finding it difficult to concentrate. Feedback forms indicated that Clive's delivery method was appropriate to his audience and that participants felt the content was easy to understand.

  1. Education for citizenship is important because every society needs people to contribute effectively, in ...

    For example, children will often cry out "that's not fair!" when they have experienced injustice. Human rights education can be build on understanding of injustice, the sense of fair play and can explore why certain behaviour is unfair. The topic may be demanding for children with special educational needs, however,

  2. Is the landowner the driving force in urban redevelopment?

    The authors' decision to locate their research in large free-standing cities is a good one: prior studies have focussed principally on the major UK conurbations, and frequently only parts of them. Adams (1994:38-44) undertakes a major case study of Greenwich Reach, while Goodchild and Munton (1985:172-4)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work