• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Effects of Chunking and Distraction on Short Term Memory Recall

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Effects of Chunking and Distraction on Short Term Memory Recall. Abstract. This report aimed to investigate the effects of distraction and chunking on short term memory performance. A serial recall task was used to investigate this in a sample of 20 male and female undergraduate student in a within subject design. This data was analysed with a two way repeated measures ANOVA and the results show that there are significant improvements in recall when the items are chucked. In addition there is a significant deterioration in recall following the distraction technique. However, there are no interaction effects between these factors. These findings are discussed in terms of potential means of improving short term memory. Introduction. It is generally accepted that there are three different memory systems; sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. These distinctions were first defined by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971). Sensory memory is that which holds information from the senses for up to several seconds at the most. Short-term memory in contrast, is whatever we are thinking about at any given moment and has a relatively rapid input and retrieval. Miller (1965) argued that human short term memory has a span of approximately seven items, plus or minus two. ...read more.

Middle

Specifically he lacked the ability to transfer new short term memories into long term ones. He could repeat information for many minutes, but if distracted, even briefly, he would forgot. HM is not an isolated case and thus the role of the temporal lobes is clearly essential in human memory. This study therefore aims to assess the effects of the chunking of items and the presence of a distracter technique prior to recall on short term memory.It is hypothesised that chunked items without a distraction will facilitate greater recall than chunked items followed by a distraction. In addition it is hypothesised that chunked items without distraction will result in greater recall than non chunked items with a distraction. Overall, chunked items will be more successful in terms of recall then non chunked items and the presence of the distracter will result in a deterioration in recall. The null hypothesis, therefore infers that there will be no difference in recall between the conditions. Methodology. Participants were 20 male and female undergraduate students, aged between 18-19 years who participated voluntarily. The sample is highly female biased (15 female and 5 males were recruited). ...read more.

Conclusion

helping them to remember things on a day-day basis and that they should bear in mind that distractions are likely to cause memory loss. Individuals should also bear in mind the evidence which suggests that only between five to nine items can usually be held in short term memory. This study would have benefited from a larger sample size and a greater proportion of male participants in order to examine the possibility that there are gender effects. In addition it would be interesting to look at a wider demographic by including individuals from a broader age range. It would be interesting to expand this study in order to investigate the possibility that the type of distracter technique in particular, exerts an influence over recall. For example would these effects be replicated if the participant were required to read the distracter themselves rather than listening to it? Or to speak it aloud themselves? Greater attention should also be paid to strength of the distracter technique required to create these effects. It is hoped that future research will tackle these issues in order to increase our knowledge in this field and to continue to offer help for patients suffering from memory deficits. Word Count: 2087 ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 Jennifer Sanders ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Define short-term memory and describe the main factors that influence the number of items ...

    4 star(s)

    He concludes that it seems likely rehearsal could be a mechanism for representation of stimulus material, meaning that discrete rehearsals might replicate items in memory that enhance the memory later (Nairne 2002 [5]). Nairne regards the most important aspect of rehearsal is that it produces benefits, not in the sense

  2. Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall

    In this investigation the independent groups design was used; two groups of participants used to investigate two conditions. This particular design was used to avoid order effects and participants guessing the purpose of the experiment. The investigation used an opportunity sample (people who are easily available)

  1. A study investigating the effects of categorisation on recall

    ensure consistent timing between each word within the test and also between subsequent participants. This would dilute experimenter effects during the delivery of the word lists and make the study more accurately replicable. If the study were to be repeated, testing all the participants in the same room would be

  2. Stroop Effect

    Also the reliability could be a problem. Not all the participants showed the Stroop affect. This means that some people are not affected that much by interference and can ignore autonomous processing. The research was conducted using opportunity sample. A limitation of the experiment would be the population validity; this study cannot be generalised to a greater population.

  1. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    Slak (1970) found that subjects who found a number sequence such as 265070193 very difficult, by using a mnemonic, a word or group of words that can be associated with the information being remembered, like BAFDILTUN could learn the letter-code equivalent much quicker.

  2. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    The aim of this experiment is to see whether chunking does improve the amount of information the short term memory can hold. In this investigation I am supporting Miller's theory of the chunking method. The hypothesis is that participants will recall more information using the chunking method than without the chunking method.

  1. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    For example I wished to see if I was to give a participant a list of words that are un-chunked and then a list of words that were chunked, if there would be a difference in recall of the words of the participant.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    All the selected participants were called into the classroom and asked to "please sit". They were all given a briefing sheet and asked to "read and asked question(s) if unclear of any information written on the sheet". The briefing sheet consisted of information that tells the participants what they will

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work