THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
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THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY I am going to be looking at the history of psychology, and by using a few examples try to explain some of the theories that leading psychologists and scientist have concluded in their experiments and scientific studies. Psychology is in fact the study of the mind, how it works and what effect it has upon an individuals thoughts and general functions, the processes of the mind will never be fully understood but there has been a great breakthrough over many years, although the mind has many parts in which we will never truly understand. The first example I am going to look at is behaviourism, Wittgenstein(1889-1951) believes what is in the mind as "over and above behaviour" He believes that if everyone were to have a box which held a beetle and only they were allowed to look in their own box, people will talk about their boxes and perceive them to stand for a beetle as that is how they associate their boxes, he believes the boxes are like the mind, everyone has one, they are alike
are, ID stage, he believes this is our unconscious impulse to seek instant gratification, in a way our selfishness and need for attention from others, this is also known as the Pleasure Principle, there is then the Ego Freud's reality principle, which is the mediator between the Id and reality what we want and what we have, then the Super ego which suppresses the Id and the Ego, its known as the Guilt principle which is part of our mind that makes us feel guilty for selfish acts. Freud concludes it as the conflict theory: ID= I want biological- instinct, EGO = I can psychological- intelligence, Superego = I ought social/moral - institutional v individual. Freud also believes that from birth we go through Psych Sexual stages which are Oral (birth) the stage at which you start suckling, Anal (2-3) this is associated with the fascination with faeces potty training stage, Genital/phallatic (3-4) where children have a fascination with their genitals, Latenency/forgettfull (5yrs to puberty)
own achievements, and finally the fifth stage Self actualization needs, the feeling of fulfilment in life, reaching your goals and being happy with your life as a whole. Although people will argue the final stage because no one can ever really reach it, after all no matter what you achieve in life there is always something else a person will strive for as this is human instinct because no matter what you have they'll always be something bigger and better you will want as well. Maslow said "that the needs must be satisfied in the given order". This study gave people a further understanding into the psychological needs of a person and their minds in order to survive. So as you can see from looking at a few examples of psychology and its history it is a fascinating world of what really goes on in peoples minds, in fact the mind is a mysterious place in which no one will ever truly understand but will continue to study. The mind is the key to our existence and without its functions we could not survive.
This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.
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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay
This is a reasonably clear exploration of the history of psychology. A clearer timeline would help to explain where psychology originated from and where it is going. My main criticism is a lack of clarity in explaining some complex issues and a need to improve the flow of the piece.
Marked by teacher Matthew Smithen 29/05/2013
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