• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent do Cross cultural variations affect the development of Attachment?

Extracts from this document...


To what extent do Cross cultural variations affect the development of Attachment? There are two main types of attachment. they are secure and insecure attachment, under insecure attachment comes avoidant and resistant attachment, this could be due to the carer being rejecting or inconsistent. This means of measuring attachment was tested by Ainsworth and Bell in 1970. They found that most children in the uk are securely attached however 12% have an insecure/avoidant attachment and 17% have a insecure/resistant attachment. They found that attachment can be measured.They did there experiment using the strange situation, this observational testing was simple and a recognised technique. They found that children that were securely attached at 18 months were still well attached at 6 years old. ...read more.


Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg in 1988 investigated cross-cultural variation in attachment types, by conducting in meta-analysis, using 32 studies that had the strange situation test to measure attachment in 8 different countries. A mix of western and non-western were chosen. Secure attachment was again found to be the most common in all countries. However there are criticisms of the study as it may not be valid and ethical to compare children from different countries as cultures vary. The biological view of attachment sees the importance of the 'critical period' of all children within any culture; attachments must be made within a certain timeframe. An ethnologist named Konrad Lorenz, who valued the importance of imprinting for survival, studied this. ...read more.


In contrast a study by Fox showed that maternal attachments may be reduced as children in other cultures have to divide their attention among many so therefore had less interest in any one individual. Thomas claimed that multiple attachments were needed as different caregivers benefit Childs different needs, for example, as studied by Parke, 1981, fathers are needed for a Childs play, as it is physically stimulating and a mother is needed for comfort. The development of attachment depends on the culture there is no right or wrong way, as every culture has its differences for a reason and believes their way is the best. Although the world has its cultural variations, there still are a high percentage of children developing securely, as shown from research by Sagi et Al. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Developmental Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Developmental Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does Temperament affect attachment?

    4 star(s)

    The strength of attachment security from infant's temperament (and other child characteristics) is thought to be influenced by their 'goodness-of-fit' (Thomas and Chess, 1977), which results when the child's capacities, motivations and temperament are adequate to master the demands, expectations and opportunities of the environment (Goldberg, Marcovitch 1989).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Strange situation has been used in many different countries to investigate attachments." Outline ...

    To evaluate, Vaughn et al, (1980) showed that attachment type may change depending on variations in the family's circumstances. Children of single parents living in poverty were studied at 12 and 18 months. Significantly, 38 % were classified differently on the two occasions, reflecting changes in the families' circumstance, particularly changes in accommodation and the mothers' degree of stress.

  1. Investigate the stages that infants go through when developing attachments.

    * Like Bowlby's results, Rutter's are correlational. In other words, Rutter found a statistical relationship between the amount of stress in a family before separation and the amount of antisocial behaviour. However we cannot assume that it as necessarily the family stress that caused the delinquency, it could have been another background factor.

  2. Contribution and cultural conditions that gave rise to the biological perspective.

    The experimenter control this. Dependent variable is the thing that we want to expect to change as a result of changing independent variable. The variable that we observe and measure. Dependent variable must always be a quantifiable data (data that can be represented in numbers).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work