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To what extent do Cross cultural variations affect the development of Attachment?

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Introduction

To what extent do Cross cultural variations affect the development of Attachment? There are two main types of attachment. they are secure and insecure attachment, under insecure attachment comes avoidant and resistant attachment, this could be due to the carer being rejecting or inconsistent. This means of measuring attachment was tested by Ainsworth and Bell in 1970. They found that most children in the uk are securely attached however 12% have an insecure/avoidant attachment and 17% have a insecure/resistant attachment. They found that attachment can be measured.They did there experiment using the strange situation, this observational testing was simple and a recognised technique. They found that children that were securely attached at 18 months were still well attached at 6 years old. ...read more.

Middle

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg in 1988 investigated cross-cultural variation in attachment types, by conducting in meta-analysis, using 32 studies that had the strange situation test to measure attachment in 8 different countries. A mix of western and non-western were chosen. Secure attachment was again found to be the most common in all countries. However there are criticisms of the study as it may not be valid and ethical to compare children from different countries as cultures vary. The biological view of attachment sees the importance of the 'critical period' of all children within any culture; attachments must be made within a certain timeframe. An ethnologist named Konrad Lorenz, who valued the importance of imprinting for survival, studied this. ...read more.

Conclusion

In contrast a study by Fox showed that maternal attachments may be reduced as children in other cultures have to divide their attention among many so therefore had less interest in any one individual. Thomas claimed that multiple attachments were needed as different caregivers benefit Childs different needs, for example, as studied by Parke, 1981, fathers are needed for a Childs play, as it is physically stimulating and a mother is needed for comfort. The development of attachment depends on the culture there is no right or wrong way, as every culture has its differences for a reason and believes their way is the best. Although the world has its cultural variations, there still are a high percentage of children developing securely, as shown from research by Sagi et Al. ...read more.

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